Arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG) are key devices in optical communication systems using wavelength division
multiplexing (WDM), and it is essential that these AWGs are low-loss. In this paper, we propose low-loss segmented
joint structures between the slab waveguide and the waveguide array in an AWG. The effectiveness of these structures is
confirmed by the measurement results. In addition, improvements in the loss uniformity can be obtained by utilizing
mode converting segmented structures between the waveguide array and the slab waveguide on the output side.
Moreover, the passband can be flattened by employing such a structure between the input and slab waveguides. These
structures were designed using the same simple calculation and optimization method. Using these optimized structures,
the transmittance was improved by 17%, the largest difference in insertion loss was reduced by 1.93 dB, and the 1-dB
bandwidth was extended by 20%. These structures can be fabricated with ordinary planar lightwave circuit (PLC)
technologies without the need for special fabrication processes.