The integral method is one of the ideal means for forming 3D spatial images like real objects. It requires, however,
extremely high-resolution device in order to satisfy sufficient resolution and wide viewing angle. The authors have been
examining integral 3D television systems applying the Super Hi-Vision (SHV) system, which uses ultrahigh-definition
LCOS, D-ILA devices. This paper describes the experimental integral 3D display and approaches to improve the quality
of elemental images, which are projected behind the lens array, by decreasing blurs and improving registration accuracy.
The display panels are four chips of D-ILA (4096 × 2160 pixels), each of which is used for R, B, G1 and G2 (pixel-offset
method). The optics of the R/B projector and the G1/G2 projector are accurately aligned by a half mirror and the
elemental images are formed on a 22 inches screen. The diffuser of the screen is a thin LC film with sufficient resolution
and homogeneous visual field. The lens array consists of newly developed short focus lenses to enable wide viewing
angle for multiple viewing. A drastic improvement of the 3D image quality has been achieved together with the
electronic distortion correction technique.
An integral three-dimensional (3-D) system based on the principle of integral photography can display natural 3-D
images. We studied ways of improving the resolution and viewing angle of 3-D images by using extremely highresolution
(EHR) video in an integral 3-D video system. One of the problems with the EHR projection-type integral 3-D
system is that positional errors appear between the elemental image and the elemental lens when there is geometric
distortion in the projected image. We analyzed the relationships between the geometric distortion in the elemental
images caused by the projection lens and the spatial distortion of the reconstructed 3-D image. As a result, we clarified
that 3-D images reconstructed far from the lens array were greatly affected by the distortion of the elemental images, and
that the 3-D images were significantly distorted in the depth direction at the corners of the displayed images. Moreover,
we developed a video signal processor that electrically compensated the distortion in the elemental images for an EHR
projection-type integral 3-D system. Therefore, the distortion in the displayed 3-D image was removed, and the viewing
angle of the 3-D image was expanded to nearly double that obtained with the previous prototype system.
The integral method enables observers to see 3D images like real objects. It requires extremely high resolution for both
capture and display stages. We present an experimental 3D television system based on the integral method using an
extremely high-resolution video system. The video system has 4,000 scanning lines using the diagonal offset method
for two green channels. The number of elemental lenses in the lens array is 140 (vertical) × 182 (horizontal). The
viewing zone angle is wider than 20 degrees in practice. This television system can capture 3D objects and provides full
color and full parallax 3D images in real time.
An autostereoscopic imaging system, which displays moving actual images created from 2D video and depth data is proposed. The system consists of a depth camera, signal processing algorithms, and an integral display prototype. The specifications are as follows: (a) Depth camera: a monocular VGA video camera with optical distance sensor captures 2D texture image and its depth map simultaneously. (b) Signal processing: 10*10 parallax images are created from the video stream, and the angle between two neighboring parallax images is 0.8 degrees. (c) Display: The display device is contact type (LCD) or projection type (LCOS), and the optical device is a microlens-array. 2D resolution of the 3D image is 720 cycle/radian at a viewing distance and a viewing zone is about 8 degrees. Noticeable defects due to occlusions are not found within the viewing zone. The method of transmission of texture and depth data has higher compatibility with conventional coding technologies than transmission using compressed parallax images. And the transmission method enables the choice of various types of displays and how the contents are displayed. Therefore we believe that this system is a candidate for the future 3D television system.