The need exists to improve sensitivity of detection of toxic pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms, ensuring food and water safety. Developing methods that would increase antibody binding surface area and/or improve the sampling process by specifically concentrating the analyte of interest from the diluted extracted food sample would increase the chances of finding and detecting food pathogens and their toxins. Our approach to improve sensitivity was to generate high surface nanofibrous membranes with covalently attached molecular recognition elements (MREs, e.g. antibodies and peptides) for the selective capture of target analytes through the use of electrospinning. Electrospinning is a process by which high static voltages are used to produce an interconnected membrane-like web of small fibers with diameters ranging from 50-1000 nanometers. These nanofibrous membranes can have surface areas approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those found in continuous films. The association of MREs with electrospun fibers presents the opportunity for developing both biosensor detection platforms with increased surface area and membrane concentrators. It is expected that the available surface area demonstrated by this technique will provide increased sensitivity, capture efficiency and fast response time in sensing applications. Antibodies and peptide-based receptors were selectively immobilized onto these nanoporous membranes for bioaffinity capture. Initial results involving fluorescent and chemiluminescent imaging for quantifying attachment and activity in association with the electrospinning process will be discussed.