Raman spectroscopy is just one of the diverse set of detection techniques which, under the CB Rapid Agent Aerosol Detection (RAAD) program, are being evaluated for their ability to detect and identify biological materials. In order to compare and contrast different techniques, a Common Sample Set composed of threat simulants, interferents and growth media was provided to all RAAD participants. The samples were investigated using both normal Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This paper focuses on near-infrared Raman data from the Common Sample Set bacterial simulants. Results are also given from a principal component analysis performed on these samples. These measurements provide and initial assessment of the detection and discrimination capability of Raman spectroscopy as applied to biological materials. Despite the challenges facing this detection method, Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a rapid and information-rich method of investigating biological threats.