There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.
A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal
imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor
surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image
intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as
a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern
electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second,
the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy
creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is
supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were
developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory
of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers
or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.
A PC-based image generator SIMTERM developed for training operators of non-airborne military thermal imaging systems is presented in this paper. SIMTERM allows its users to generate images closely resembling thermal images of many military type targets at different scenarios obtained with the simulated thermal camera. High fidelity of simulation was achieved due to use of measurable parameters of thermal camera as input data. Two modified versions of this computer simulator developed for designers and test teams are presented, too.
Humans cannot objectively judge electro-optical imaging systems looking on an image of typical scenery. Quality
of the image can be bad for some people but good for others and therefore objective test methods and advanced
equipment are needed to evaluate these imaging systems. Test methods and measuring systems that enable reliable
testing and evaluation of modern thermal cameras, color and monochrome TV cameras, LLLTV cameras and image
intensifier systems are presented in this paper.
Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.
According to the international standards ISO 9001-9004 and EN 45001-45003 the industrial plants and the accreditation laboratories that implemented the quality systems according to these standards are required to evaluate an uncertainty of measurements. Manufacturers of thermal cameras do not offer any data that could enable estimation of measurement uncertainty of these imagers. Difficulties in determining the measurement uncertainty is an important limitation of thermal cameras for applications in the industrial plants and the cooperating accreditation laboratories that have implemented these quality systems. A set of parameters for characterization of commercial thermal cameras, a measuring set, some results of testing of these cameras, a mathematical model of uncertainty, and a software that enables quick calculation of uncertainty of temperature measurements with thermal cameras are presented in this paper.
The noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is one of the most convenient measures used in describing performance of infrared systems as thermographs and radiometers. The NETD expression is also contained as a kernel within any minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRT) and minimum detectable temperature difference (MDT), so the conclusions to be reached relative to NETD apply to MRT and MDT as well. For reasons of convenience, some assumptions have been made in defining (measuring and deriving relation for) the NETD. However, for a variety of practical purposes in the field, these assumptions are not satisfied. Consequently the conventional laboratory NETD is applicable under certain favorable laboratory conditions. Therefore the typical, laboratory NETD expressions found in the literature cannot be simply applied for infrared systems under field conditions. In this paper the practical, field NETD expression is derived. It incorporates none of the assumptions which have been used in defining and deriving the laboratory NETD expression. Therefore, the given expression can be applied to assessment of infrared systems capabilities under field conditions.