Thin films of tungsten oxide (WO3) were deposited on GZO-coated B270 glass substrates and thin films of Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> were
deposited on B270 glass substrates by electron beam gun evaporation at high vacuum pressure of 3×10<sup>-5</sup> Torr and varied
oxygen pressures ranging from 1.0×10<sup>-4</sup> to 6.0×10<sup>-4</sup> Torr. The optical properties of the electro-chromic (EC) film were
measured by a spectrophotometer. The optical modulation (ΔT) of the tungsten oxide thin film deposited at an oxygen
pressure of 1.0×10<sup>-4</sup> Torr was found to be ΔT = 67.46% at λ=550nm. The optimum optical properties for deposition of
Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> were attained at an oxygen pressure of 4x10<sup>-4</sup> Torr. Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) was used as a conductive
layer instead of ITO. A five layer EC device (Glass/GZO/WO<sub>3</sub>/Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/NiO/Al) has been design and fabricated.
Normally metallic films are required for solar energy and display related coatings. To increase the absorbing
efficiency or contrast, it is necessary to apply an antireflection coating (ARC) on the metal substrate. However, the
design of a metal substrate is very different from the design of a dielectric substrate, since the optical constant of metallic
thin film is very dependent on its thickness and microstructure. In this study, we design and fabricate ARCs on Al
substrates using SiO<sub>2</sub> and Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> as the dielectric materials and Nb for the metal films. The ARC successfully deposited
on the Al substrate had the following structure: air/SiO<sub>2</sub>/Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/Metal/Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/Al. The measured average reflectance of
the ARC is less than 1% in the visible region. We found that it is better to use a highly refractive material than a low
refractive material. The thickness of the metallic film can be thicker with the result that it is easier to control and has a
lesser total thickness. The total thickness of the ARC is less than 200 nm. We successfully fabricated a solar absorber
and OLED device with the ARC structure were successfully fabricated.
In this study, we investigate the deposition of SiNx thin films by radio-frequency ion-beam sputtering deposition. By varying the amount of N2 and Ar flow and ion-beam voltage, we can obtain an optimal refractive index of 2.07, extinction coefficient (at the central wavelength of 500 nm) of 3.44×10−4, and deposition rate of 0.166 nm/s. The x-ray photoelectron spectra of SiNx films deposited with different beam voltages are also analyzed. The residual stress of the SiNx films varied from −1.38 to −2.17 GPa, depending on the beam voltage. The residual stress is reduced from −2.17 to −1.40 GPa when the film is divided into four layers with three interfaces.
SiNx thin films deposited by RF ion-beam sputtering have been investigated. The influence of composition of Nitrogen (N2) and Argon (Ar) gases and ion-beam voltages on the refractive index and extinction coefficient of SiNx films was discussed. By varying the amount of N2 and Ar flow and ion-beam voltage, the optimal refractive index, extinction coefficient (at wavelength of 550 nm) and deposition rate were 2.07, 8* 10-5 and 0.189 nm/s, respectively. The residual stress of the SiNx films varied from -1.38 to -2.17GPa depending on the ion-beam voltage. To maintain the good optical properties and reduce the residual stress of films deposited at ion-beam voltage 1300V, one may decrease the ion-beam current. Alternatively, one may introduce interfaces between layers. 770MPa of the residual stress was reduced as a film was divided into four layers with three interfaces.