Industrial solar cell fabrication generally adopts printing process to deposit the front electrodes, which needs additional heat treatment after printing to enhance electrical conductivity. As a heating method, laser irradiation draws attention not only because of its special selectivity, but also because of its intense heating to achieve high electric conductivity which is essential to reduce ohmic loss of solar cells. In this study, variation of electric conductivity was examined with laser irradiation having various beam intensity. 532 nm continuous wave (CW) laser was irradiated on inkjet-printed silver lines on glass substrate and electrical resistance was measured in situ during the irradiation. The results demonstrate that electric conductivity varies nonlinearly with laser intensity, having minimum specific resistance of 4.1 x 10<sup>-8</sup> Ωm at 529 W/cm<sup>2</sup> irradiation. The results is interesting because the specific resistance achieved by the present laser irradiation was about 1.8 times lower than the best value obtainable by oven heating, even though it was still higher by 2.5 times than that of bulk silver. It is also demonstrated that the irradiation time, needed to finish sintering process, decreases with laser intensity. The numerical simulation of laser heating showed that the optimal heating temperature could be as high as 300 oC for laser sintering, while it was limited to 250 oC for oven sintering. The nonlinear response of sintering with heating intensity was discussed, based on the results of FESEM images and XRD analysis.
This study focuses on the design and analysis of a Rotor type magneto-rheological fluid (MR Fluid) brake and clutch. The brake's braking torque and the clutch's torque output can be easily controlled by adjusting the MR fluid and the configuration of Rotor. Electromagnetic finite element analysis(FEA) is performed, using FEMLAB software of the COMSOL Group, to find out the optimization conditions for the design of the Rotor type MR Fluid clutch and brake. In this paper, the design method of the Rotor type MR Fluid brake and clutch is investigated theoretically. The equation of the torque transmitted by the MR fluid within the Rotor type brake and clutch is derived to provide the theoretical foundation in the rotor design of the brake and clutch. The output torque values are recorded for different input velocities and applied magnetic fields, and the experimental results are compared with the theoretical results. Theoretical and experimental analyses have illustrated that this Rotor type MR fluid brake and clutch can transfer high controllable torques with a very fast time response. It was demonstrated that the Rotor type MR fluid clutch and brake have a strong capability of transmitting and isolating the high torque.