The subaperture stitching technique requires the registration of freeform subapertures into global coordinate frame before stitching in order to compute entire freeform wavefront. A scanning Shack-Hartman Sensor (SHS) utilizes translation stages to scan the freeform surface in XY plane and measure the slope data of various subapertures. The measured slope data is then integrated using weighted cubic spline (WCSLI) based integration method to compute the phase data. The positioning error during scanning causes misalignments between the measured subapertures and their nominal values. The least square based subaperture stitching methods are not capable to minimize lateral misalignment errors of freeform subapertures and therefore degrade the performance of subaperture stitching process. In this work, we have utilized fiducial added planes for correction of angular and rotation misalignments of an extended cubic phase plate. An intrinsic surface feature (ISF) based registration method is used for lateral misalignment corrections. Gaussian curvature is used as an intrinsic pattern which can be defined as one of the fundamental second order geometric properties of a surface. Any shift in the peaks of the Gaussian curvature of reference and measured subaperture corresponds to lateral misalignments in X and Y directions and need to be minimized before registration of subaperture into global frame of reference. After precise registrations, all the subapertures are stitched with consistent overlapping area by using least square fitting method. A numerical validation of the proposed scheme is carried out which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method to improve the subaperture stitching accuracy.
The freeform optical surfaces are the advanced optical elements being used in the optical systems ranging from the illumination system, head up display and ophthalmic systems. So far the metrology is not well established for freeform surfaces.There are interferometric, profilometry, deflectometry and slope measurement techniques used to measure the freeform surfaces. Due to non-rotationally symmetric nature of freeform surfaces, slope measurement systems like Shack Hartman Sensors (SHS) are being explored for the measurement of freeform wavefronts. The spatial resolution of Shack Hartmann sensor is limited by the size of the lens lets used in the sensor which is typically 100 μm to 200 μm. The self-imaging based sensing uses a periodic structure which can be replicated under collimated illumination at certain distance known as Talbot distance. If there is a wavefront other than collimated light, the deviation in self-imaging pattern is observed, and this deviation can be utilised for wavefront measurements. Being a smaller pitch of the periodic structure, a high resolution data is obtained. In the present study, we have proposed a high resolution system for measurement of freeform surface using self-imaging based technique, which is having advantage of higher spatial data as compared to Shack Hartman Sensor. A simulation study is carried out and demonstrated the improved performance of the proposed sensor as compared to SHS.
A method is presented to measure refractive index of a plane parallel plate of optical glass. We have applied focal
displacement method to measure refractive index of a plane parallel plate of an optical glass having thickness of the
order of millimeters. The best focus position is found by applying edge detection algorithm. We have measured LAF2
optical glass using focal displacement method and obtained the value 1.746, which is within 0.1% of the standard value
1.747 at 555 nm. In comparison to Abbe refractometer, this method is simple in terms of sample preparation,
experimental set up and for measuring high refractive index of Zinc Sulfide. Using this method, refractive indices of
other optical glasses are also measured.
The fabrication of complex aspheric and freeform surfaces are possible with accurate iterative metrology feedback
during correcting polishing process. The tool path of the machine is generated based on the measured surface data
for corrective material removal. The computer controlled polishing machines are compatible with various metrology
tools. This paper presents annular null based interferometric in- process metrology for deterministic corrective
polishing for aspheric surface of infrared optical material.