A spin-on sacrificial 193 nm UV absorbing organosiloxane film was developed to facilitate ArF photoresist (PR) patterning. To improve lithographic compatibility with acrylate based photoresists, different performance additives were evaluated as photoresist adhesion promoter. The results suggested that the type and loading of the photoresist adhesion promoter had a large impact on the profile and focus latitude of the patterned photoresist features. An efficient photoresist adhesion promoter candidate was identified, which has minimum impact on other solution and film properties. This work has led to the development of DUO 193 organosiloxane based bottom anti-reflective coating. Application of this film as a blanket level bottom anti-reflective coating or as a fill material for via first trench last (VFTL) dual damascene patterning is possible. The SiO structure intrinsic to this film provides a high degree of plasma etch selectivity to the thin ArF photoresists in use today. Furthermore, an equivalent plasma etch rate between DUO 193 and the low dielectric constant SiOCH films used as the dielectric layer in the backend Cu interconnect structure is possible without compromising the photoresist etch selectivity. Equivalent etch rate is necessary for complete elimination of the “fencing” or “shell” defects found at the base of the etched trench feature located at the perimeter of the top of the via. Advanced ArF PR features of 100 nm in width (and smaller) have been routinely patterned on DUO 193 film. Via fill, plasma etch rate, wet etch rate, ArF PR patterning and shelf life data will be discussed in this presentation.
Two-photon Laser Scanning Microscopy (TPLSM) is a novel technique based on the two-photon excitation of fluorophore. In this paper, TPLSM and traditional confocal microscopy are introduced. And the influence of femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) illumination on mouse embryos is investigated for the first time. The result shows that NIR laser has much less damage to embryos than blue laser and proves that TPLSM is superior to conventional confocal microscopy in keeping sample alive. TPLSM enables us to make a continuous observation for a longer time on embryogenesis.
Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has become increasingly popular in 3D fluorescence imaging of tissue samples. Observation depth is an important indicator for the performance of the technique. Using the principle of tissue optics, we analyzed quantitatively the effects of optical properties, such as absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and the scattering anisotropy factor of the tissue, to the observation depth. An analytical relation between the fluorescence and the observation depth has been derived and tested against experimental results for rat aorta elastic lamina.
Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.
We presented a method of determining optical constants of a thin film using the reflectance R(theta) curve. Other parameters of the film, such as film thickness and roughness, are also determined with the derivation of the optical constants(n,k). To illustrate the method, the results of the film Al are given.
In the soft x-ray domain (near 10 nm), the reported optical constants of silver and silicon are sufficiently different to make them attractive for a multilayer design. In this paper, design and fabrication of silver/silicon multilayer to be used as normal-incidence reflectors for 11.4 nm radiation are presented. Characterization of these multilayer structures was accomplished using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and little-angle x-ray diffraction (LXD). As a result of our experiments, we came to realize that silver/silicon multilayer can provide high quality structures and reach a certain reflectance.
10 kW and 2kw wall stabilized argon arc sources have been developed in this institute as VUV spectroradiometric standard sources. The stability and reproducibility are better than 0. 2. Plasma spectroscopic diagnostics shows that the plasma temperature is 12759 K and the electron density is 1. 36x1023 m3 when the arc current is 40 A and argon pressure is 1. 75x10S'' Pa. Richter method absolute method relative method and computer spectral line reconstruction technique were used for plasma diagnostics. Based on McPherson 2253 M5 normal incidence VUV monochromator a computer controlled VUV spectroradiometer was set up. Impurity gases such as N1COKr Owere put into 10 kW arc and several black body limited lines (BBLL) were produced from 100 to 250 nm. These lines were used to calibrate deuterium lamp as transfer standard. 1.