Uncrystallized copper indium disulphide (CuInS2) thin films have been deposited on ITO glass by chemical bath
deposition (CBD) in acid conditions. Then polycrystalline CuInS2 films were obtained after sulfuration in sulfur
atmosphere at 300°C, 350°C, 400°C and 450°C for 1.5 hours respectively. The films have been characterized by X-Ray
diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), precision surface profiler, energy dispersive X-ray analysis
(EDX) and Hall effect measurement system. The results show that with the raising of heat treatment temperature the
crystal degree and electrical property of the film are improved. Our work demonstrates the chemical bath deposition in
acid conditions is a promising method for deposition of CuInS2 thin films for solar cells.
The planar lightwave circuit (PLC) on silicon substrate offers a promising on-chip integrated solution to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation for long haul high speed communications. A novel cascaded PLC based PMD compensator is proposed in this paper and a detailed statistical analysis of PMD generated by cascaded PLC circuits is presented. Using Gisin and Pellaux's approach the distributions of first-order PMD produced by various multiple-stage PLC circuits were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with respect to the phase shift introduced by heating elements in the circuits. The generated PMD was compared with a standard Maxwell distribution and that of a 12-stage nonlinear crystal based PMD compensator. It was found that a 3-stage cascaded PLC circuit yields a performance close to that of the crystal-based PMD compensator, while with a significant reduction in packaged size and enhancement in stability.