Satellite-observed daily sea level anomaly (SLA), sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) are used
to determine the impact of the typhoon Prapiroon (2012) on the sea surface. The typhoon, Prapiroon, has a unique track
when it went through the area (126°E-133°E, 17°N-25.5°N), where it influenced the sea greatly. For example, the lowest
SST in this area was 25.2°C on October 8 before it entered, while the SST dropped to 20.7 °C on October 15. On the
other hand, the lowest SLA dropped from -20 cm (on October 8) to -53 cm (on October 29). Accompanied with this, the
SSS increased about 0.8-0.9 psu in some region. This is qualitative but quantitative agree with the Argo data of 0.2 psu
SSS increase. One possible reason is the precipitation of typhoon, as the SSS data by Aquarius are easily affected by
precipitation. And such significant SST cooling and SSS increasing were mainly due to vertical mixing, caused by longterm
strong wind stirring brought by Parpiroon. We find that both the cold patch and eddies were transported westward.
The horizontal advection took the cold water to 100 km away, this non-local effect could have notable impact on ocean
dynamics and bio-physical processes. In addition we analyzed the possible factors of the temperature and salinity
decreasing below the thermocline by calculating the Ekman pumping velocity due to the typhoon. It reveals that this is
caused by Ekman pumping and upwelling in the cyclonic eddy, and Ekman pumping is the main factor.
Using multiple satellite observations, Argo floats profiles, and one-dimensional (1-D) ocean mixed layer model, this study systematically investigated the impacts of the binary typhoons Hagibis and Mitag [which coexisted respectively in the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) during November, 22 to 26, 2007] on upper ocean environments. It was observed that intense Ekman pumping and two mesoscale cold, cyclonic eddies, which, induced by long forcing time of strong wind stress curls, appeared respectively in two certain areas instead of after the binary typhoons' trails. Both cyclonic eddies retained for ∼39 days, accompanied with maximum sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) reduction of ∼25 cm induced by Hagibis and of ∼44 cm induced by Mitag, respectively. The largest sea surface temperature (SST) drop of 7°C and 2°C, the maximum chlorophyll a (Chl-a ) enhancement respectively was >20 times and ∼3 times in these two eddies' regions induced by Typhoon Hagibis and Mitag, respectively. The results of the 1-D ocean mixed layer model showed that, given its 84 h forcing time, the simulated MLT cooling and mixed layer deepening induced by Hagibis were ∼-2.8°C and 45 m, respectively, ∼-0.5°C and 25 m for Mitag at its 66 h forcing time. This work provides convincing evidences that typhoons, which appear frequently in the SCS and the WNP, play a notable role in the activities of mesoscale eddies in these areas.