Many ancient sites of different cultural period distributed in the Taihu lake basin. The natural environment is the material
foundation that the mankind relies for existence and development, so it's necessary to master the natural environment at
that time in order to understand the culture of site. The paper analyzed morphological characteristics and temporal and
spatial distribution of ancient site using GIS spatial analysis method which based on the remote sensing image and DEM
data. Some terrain indexes were selected as the evaluation factor including altitude, slope, aspect, slope shape and
surface rolling, which were used to analyze the relation between the spatial location of ancient site and the natural
environment. The research shows the spatial location of ancient sites have a close relationship with natural environment
by the terrain analysis and hydrological analysis. Especially, the water distribution plays an important role in the
constraints of the distribution of ancient sites, meanwhile the ancients showed the capacity to adapt the environment.
Throughout the development of the ancient sites, ancients and nature depend on each other for existence.