The Hubble Space Telescope started out on its mission of infamy and is now providing unparalleled information on the universe. Shortly after its launch in April 1990, the HST was found to have a problem with the primary mirror. After extensive analysis, it was concluded that serious spherical aberration was present caused by an improper manufacturing process and measurement of the surface. A servicing and repair mission was launched on Dec. 2, 1994 to correct and compensate for the primary mirror problem and also to replace other portions of the support system on the HST. Since its repair, the HST has been providing information of astronomical events never previously considered possible and far exceeding any ground based telescope systems. This paper describes the telescope, its problems, and the corrections to compensate and improve the imagery from the HST.
The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in Apri I 1990. Almost fifteen years of planning, construction, assembly, and testing hd passed prior to the I iftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The Hubble Space Telescone is an astronomical cbserva— tory orbiting the Earth 380 mi es above its surface. The goals of this cbservatory are to understand origin of the universe, laws of physics gcvrnir.q the universe, and birth of stars and planets, and advent of life. After images were sent back from space, the 2.4 meter primary mirror was found to have a serious problem of spherical aberration caused by improper grinding. The imperfection caused a blurred image of stars' light instead of a sharp point. Other problems were encountered with the solar arrays, guidance and telerr:etry systems, and the performance of auxi I iary equipment. The problems and planning for repair of the telescope took many months after determi— nation of the caus€ of the fuzzy images. A combination of mirrors was eventually decided upon to refocus the images onto the various instruments. The servicing mis— sion began on Dec. 2, 1993 with seven astronauts on the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission took eleven days wiTh six to eight hour work periods, replacing the malfunc— tioning equipment. There are many earthbound observatories trying to do some of the tasks assigned to the Hubule Space Telescope, but none have the advantages of observa— tion without atmospheric interference. The paper describes the observatory, its mis— sions, detai Is of equipment, data acquisition, transmission and reduction, problems of manufacture, repair mission, and postmission performarc;.
Evolution of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), an astronomical observatory orbiting the earth 380 miles above its surface is considered. The equipment onboard this satellite includes a telescope with a 96 inch primary mirror ground, a wide field and planetary camera, a faint object spectrograph, a Goddard high-resolution spectrograph, a high-speed photometer, and a faint object camera.
The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am
Proc. SPIE. 1346, Ultrahigh- and High-Speed Photography, Videography, Photonics, and Velocimetry '90
KEYWORDS: High speed photonics, Equipment and services, Manufacturing, Optical communications, Velocimetry, Education and training, Electro optics, High speed photography, Optics manufacturing, Standards development
The second half of Session 2 consisted of a round table discussion which addressed
the action items necessary to increase the involvement of the United States optics and
electro-optics community in the defining and implementing of standards. Covered also
were the implications if involvement was not forth coming.
Participants in the round table discussion were the speakers from the first half of
Session II: Bob Parks, Tim Wise, Fortney Shell, and Lincoln Endelman. Also
participating were Dennis Caudle and Larry Shaw. The discussion was moderated by