Quantum vortex structures and energy cascades are examined for two dimensional quantum turbulence (2D
QT) using a special unitary evolution algorithm. The qubit lattice gas (QLG) algorithm, is employed to
simulate the weakly-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP)
equation. A parameter regime is uncovered in which, as in 3D QT, there is a very short Poincare recurrence
time. This short recurrence time is destroyed as the nonlinear interaction energy is increased. Energy
cascades for 2D QT are considered to examine whether 2D QT exhibits the inverse cascades of 2D classical
turbulence. In the parameter regime considered, the spectra analysis reveals no such dual cascades---dual
cascades being a hallmark of 2D classical turbulence.
Spinor Bose Einstein Condensates are intriguing because of their vast range of different topological vortices. These
states occur when a BEC gas is trapped in an optical lattice rather than in a magnetic well (which would result in
scalar BEC vortices). A spinor BEC states also occur in a quantum gas when several hyperfine states of the atom
co-exist in the same trap. A unitary quantum lattice algorithm that is ideally parallelized to all available processors is
used to solve the evolution of non-eigenstate Skyrmions in a coupled BEC system. The incompressible kinetic energy
spectrum of the inner quantum vortex ring core rapidly deviates from the k-3 spectrum found in the evolution of
A quantum lattice gas algorithm, based on interleaved unitary collide-stream operators, is
used to study quantum turbulence of the ground state wave function of a Bose-Einstein
condensate (BEC). The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is a Hamiltonian system for a
compressible, inviscid quantum fluid. From simulations on a 57603 grid it was observed
that a multi-cascade existed for the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum with universal
features: the large spatial scales exhibit a classical Kolmogorov k -5/3 spectrum while the
very small scales exhibit a quantum Kelvin wave cascade k-3 spectrum. Under certain
conditions one can explicitly determine the Poincare recurrence of initial conditions as
well as the intermittent destruction of the Kelvin wave cascade.
The dynamics of vortex solitons is studied in a BEC superfluid. A quantum lattice-gas algorithm (measurementbased
quantum computation) is employed to examine the dynamical behavior vortex soliton solutions of the
Gross-Pitaevskii equation (φ4 interaction nonlinear Schroedinger equation). Quantum turbulence is studied in
large grid numerical simulations: Kolmogorov spectrum associated with a Richardson energy cascade occurs on
large flow scales. At intermediate scales, a new k-5.9 power law emerges, due to vortex filamentary reconnections
associated with Kelvin wave instabilities (vortex twisting) coupling to sound modes and the exchange of
intermediate vortex rings. Finally, at very small spatial scales a k-3 power law emerges, characterizing fluid
dynamics occurring within the scale size of the vortex cores themselves. Poincaré recurrence is studied: in the
free non-interacting system, a fast Poincaré recurrence occurs for regular arrays of line vortices. The recurrence
period is used to demarcate dynamics driving a nonlinear quantum fluid towards turbulence, since fast recurrence
is an approximate symmetry of the nonlinear quantum fluid at early times. This class of quantum algorithms
is useful for studying BEC superfluid dynamics and, without modification, should allow for higher resolution
simulations (with many components) on future quantum computers.
This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a SOI-based tuning-fork gyroscope with high Quality factors
(Qs). A tuning-fork structure with high Qs is designed and is integrated with on-chip electrostatic transducers for
excitation and detection. With a one-mask fabrication technology, this gyroscope design is fabricated on a SOI wafer
with a 30μm-thick device layer. The fabricated devices are further tested for their preliminary performance
characterization. The measured Qs of a fabricated gyroscope are 162,060 for the drive mode and 85,168 for the sense
mode at 16.8kHz. In order to enhance its rate sensitivity, the frequency of the sense mode is tuned using electrostatic
tuning toward that of the drive mode and a minimum frequency split of 6Hz between the two modes is demonstrated.
Under this nearly matched-mode condition, a prototype device shows a measured rate sensitivity of 0.02mV/°/sec. The
theoretical mechanical resolution due to Brownian noise is 0.3°/hr/√Hz.
In light of the efforts to improve the performance of micromachined gyroscopes, this paper presents an investigation of
energy loss mechanisms in a SOI-based tuning-fork gyroscope, since these loss mechanisms dictate the value of the
mechanical Quality factor (Q) that has been identified as a critical determinant for achieving high-precision
performance. The numerical models of thermoelastic damping (TED) and anchor loss in the tuning-fork gyroscope
design are created in a FEM software, ANSYS/Multiphysics, according to a thermal-energy method and a separationand-
transfer method, respectively. The calculated results indicate that thermoelastic damping is the dominant loss while
anchor loss is negligible for the gyroscope design. In order to validate the created models, an experimental study on the
Q of the SOI-based tuning-fork gyroscope is consequently conducted. Comparison between the calculated results and the
measured data not only validates the numerical models, but also demonstrates the significant effect of fabrication process
on the final achievable Q values of the fabricated gyroscopes.
The ground state wave function for a Bose Einstein condensate is well described by the
Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A Type-II quantum algorithm is devised that is ideally
parallelized even on a classical computer. Only 2 qubits are required per spatial node.
With unitary local collisions, streaming of entangled states and a spatially
inhomogeneous unitary gauge rotation one recovers the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Quantum vortex reconnection is simulated - even without any viscosity or resistivity
(which are needed in classical vortex reconnection).
A quantum lattice algorithm is developed for the solution of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations, which are just
the nonlinear Schrodinger equations with an external potential. In the language of solitons, a sufficiently strong
external potential can localize the solitons and even the radiation in the case of Manikov solitons. For non-integrable
potential cases the radiation is no longer localized and one can also lose the soliton structures themselves.
One also finds locked mode structures if the systems is close to being integrable.
The quantum Boltzmann equation method is demonstrated by numerically predicting the time-dependent solutions of the velocity and magnetic fields governed by nonintegrable magnetohydrodynamic equations in one spatial dimension. The method allows arbitrary tuning of the value of the viscosity and resistivity transport coefficients without compromising numerical integrity even near the zero dissipation and turbulent regime where shock front discontinuities emerge.
The nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation in a self-defocusing Kerr medium supports dark solitons. Moreover the mean field description of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which for a highly anisotropic (cigar-shaped) magnetic trap reduces to a one-dimensional (1D) cubic NLS in an external potential. A quantum lattice algorithm is developed for the dark solitons. Simulations are presented for both black (stationary) solitons as well as (moving) dark solitons. Collisions of dark solitons are compared with the exact analytic solutions and coupled dark-bright vector solitons are examined. The quantum algorithm requires 2 qubits per scalar field at each spatial node. The unitary collision operator quantum mechanically entangles the on-site qubits, and this transitory entanglement is spread throughout the lattice by the streaming operators. These algorithms are suitable for a Type-II quantum computers, with wave function collapse induced by quantum measurements required to determine the coupling potentials.
Quantum lattice gas algorithms are developed for the coupled-nonlinear Schrodinger (coupled-NLS) equations, equations that describe the propagation of pulses in birefringent fibers. When the cross-phase modulation factor is unity, the coupled-NLS reduce to the Manakov equations. The quantum lattice gas algorithm yields vector solitons for the fully integrable Manakov system that are in excellent agreement with exact results. Simulations are also presented for the interaction between a turbulent 2-soliton mode and a simple NLS 2-soliton mode. The quantum algorithm requires 4 qubits for each spatial node, with quantum entanglement required only between pairs of qubits through a unitary collision operator. The coupling between the qubits is achieved through a local phase change in the absolute value of the paired qubit wave functions. On symmetrizing the unitary streaming operators, the resulting quantum algorithm, which is unconditionally stable, is accurate to O(ε2).