Calibration is a critical step to ensure data quality and to meet the requirement of quantitative remote sensing in a broad range of scientific applications. One of the least expensive and increasingly popular methods of on-orbit calibration is the use of pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS). A spatial homogenous and temporally stable area of 34 km2 in size around the center of Kunlun Mountain (KLM) over Tibetan Plateau (TP) was identified by our previous study. The spatial and temporal coefficient of variation (CV) this region was better than 4% for the reflective solar bands. In this study, the BRDF impacts of KLM glacier on MODIS observed TOA reflectance in band 1 (659 nm) are examined. The BRDF impact of KLM glacier with respect to the view zenith angle is studied through using the observations at a fixed solar zenith angle, and the effect with respect to the sun zenith angle is studied based on the observations collected at the same view angle. Then, the two widely used BRDF models are applied to our test data to simulate the variations of TOA reflectance due to the changes in viewing geometry. The first one is Ross-Li model, which has been used to produce the MODIS global BRDF albedo data product. The second one is snow surface BRDF model, which has been used to characterize the bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of these two different BRDF models are tested through comparing the model of simulated TOA reflectance with the observed one. The results show that variations of the reflectances at a fixed solar zenith angle are close to the lambertian pattern, while those at a fixed sensor zenith angle are strongly anisotropic. A decrease in solar zenith angle from 50º to 20º causes an increase in reflectance by the level of approximated 50%. The snow surface BRDF model performs much better than the Ross-Li BRDF model to re-produce the Bi-Directional Reflectance of KLM glacier. The RMSE of snow surface BRDF model is 3.60%, which is only half of the RMSE when using Ross-Li model.
FY-3C/MERSI has some remarkable improvements compared to the previous MERSIs including better spectral response function (SRF) consistency of different detectors within one band, increasing the capability of lunar observation by space view (SV) and the improvement of radiometric response stability of solar bands. During the In-orbit verification (IOV) commissioning phase, early results that indicate the MERSI representative performance were derived, including the signal noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, MTF, B2B registration, calibration bias and instrument stability. The SNRs at the solar bands (Bands 1–4 and 6-20) was largely beyond the specifications except for two NIR bands. The in-flight calibration and verification for these bands are also heavily relied on the vicarious techniques such as China radiometric calibration sites(CRCS), cross-calibration, lunar calibration, DCC calibration, stability monitoring using Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) and multi-site radiance simulation. This paper will give the results of the above several calibration methods and monitoring the instrument degradation in early on-orbit time.
To monitor changes in sensor performance and sensor calibration is a critical step to ensure data quality and to meet the needs of quantitative remote sensing in a broad range of scientific applications. One of the least expensive and increasingly popular methods of on-orbit calibration has been the use of large-area stable terrestrial sites. In this study, three stable desert sites of Libya-1, Sonora, and Arabia-2 are used to assessment the radiometric changes of reflective solar bands of FY-3A/MERSI from May 2008 to Dec. 2013. For each site, two BRDF models are established using the TOA reflectance measurements in the winter half-year and summer half-year late in the mission. Then, the degradation rates of RSBs of MERSI are predicted using an exponential fit of the BRDF-corrected time series. Results show that the use of two BRDF models is effective to removal of seasonal oscillation caused by angular effects. Degradation rates from three desert sites are in good agreement, with the standard deviation less than 1.5% for most of the bands. When compared with the DCC method, consistent detecting results are found, and the absolute deviation is less than 3% for most of the channels.