The investigation of the influence polarization orientation on damage performance of type I doubler KDP crystals grown by the conventional growth method under under 532nm pulse exposure is carried out in this work. The obtained results point out the pinpoint density (ppd) of polarization parallels the extraordinary axis is around 1.5× less than that of polarization parallels the ordinary axis under the same fluence, although polarization has no influence on size distribution of pinpoints. Meanwhile, crystal inhomogeneity is observed during experiment.
Computer generated holograms (CGHs) are state-of-the-art components in optical systems, and are widely used in combination with standard Fizeau interferometers. The primary role of the CGHs is to generate reference wavefront with any desired shape. A method of interferometrically measuring large convex lens with CGHs is adopted, and the results from a set of experiments that demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of performing the holographic test are presented. A direct comparison of the CGH measurement with results from a compensation method shows excellent agreement. Finally, measurement uncertainty due to substrate error and hologram fabrication processes is analyzed.
A new reconstruction algorithm for absolute shape calibration in two-flat test is proposed. The shift-rotation method is applied to absolute shape calibration in two-flat test. Relying on the decomposition of the reconstructed shapes into rotationally asymmetric and symmetric components, an iteration algorithm is presented to reconstruct the rotationally asymmetric components, and Zernike polynomial fitting algorithm is used to calculate rotationally symmetric components. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the proposed algorithm has the characteristics of considerable accuracy and less computational effort. A simulation experiment proves the validity of the presented algorithm.
The paper will describe an automated subaperture stitching interferometry for large plano surface based on relevant algorithm, which restruct the whole surface without recording the position of every subaperture. Both correction and data fusion algorithm are used to minimize the stitching error.
A new technique for precise wavefront measurement of lens with a hologram is presented. In diffraction, the Fresnel-zone plate hologram emulates the reflective properties of a spherical mirror for use during transmission null tests of an optic by use of a phase-shifting interferometer. Experiment shows that the Fresnel-zone hologram method result is quite similar with that of the traditional interferometry testing method, in which retroreflecting spherical surfaces are used as the reference. The benefit of this methodology is the higher degree of precision at lower cost of manufacturing the reflecting hologram, compared with retrospheres capable of delivering similar precision. This technique is widely applicable and is particularly useful for measuring long focus lens.
Zernike Polynomial fitting method is an effective way to reconstruct absolute surface for three-flat test. However, the Zernike circle polynomials are not orthogonal over the circular area, hence they are not suitable for square flat. We present an absolute testing of a square flat with Legendre polynomial fitting method, which relies on calculating the coefficients of the Legendre terms by least-square fitting method. To obtain the three-dimensional surface data, one additional measurement that rotate the test flat through 90° should be introduced. The formulas are derived theoretically in detail, and validity has been proved by simulated experiment. Vertical profiles of the three surfaces are compared with the measurement results obtained by three-flat test. Good agreement validates our method.
An iterative algorithm has been successfully used to process data from the three-flat test. On the basis of the iterative algorithm proposed by Vannoni, which is much faster and more effective than the Zernike polynomial fitting method, an improved algorithm is presented. By optimizing the iterative steps and removing the scaling factors, the surface shape can be easily computed in a few iterations. The validity of the method is proved by computer simulation, and the interpolation error and principle error are analyzed.
Residual stress birefringence in crystal will affect frequency conversion efficiency and beam quality. In this paper the
distribution characteristics of inherent stress birefringence in crystal is analyzed, through delicate adjustment the optical
axis is oriented and qualitative results obtained for KDP crystals are presented and discussed by imaging digital stress
measurement instrument, and the stress gradient distribution is calculated, also the effect of deviation from optical axis
on the measured stress distribution results is discussed.
A simple method which can be used to map mid-spatial scale surface irregularities with high signal noise ratio is described. Two major sources of errors are analyzed and removed. One is the contributions of small-scale irregularities of the reference surface, which are subtracted by shifting the test surface laterally by a distance. The other is the spurious response of CCD, which is removed by interpolation function. The presented method is verified by simulations and experiments. It shows that it can measure mid-spatial scale surface irregularities exactly and smaller scale surface irregularities can be obtained by making measurement for a series of the lateral shifting values corresponding to one-half of the pixel space on CCD.
A 100-mm-aperture high lateral resolution interferometer has been developed in Fine Optical Engineering Research Center (FOERC), which is applied to the measurement of spatial frequencies of up to 2.5 lines/mm over a 100mm field of view. The system transfer function of the interferometer is greater than 60% at near half the Nyquist frequency. To demonstrate the performance of this high lateral resolution interferometer, theoretical errors of the system are thoroughly analyzed and the design implementation is carefully studied, such as light source, wave front slope, tolerance analysis, CCD sample and so on.
A 500-mm-aperture wavelength-tuning phase-shifting interferometer has been developed in FOERC applied to the measurement of large optics. The optical and mechanical design and the calibration technique of the phase shifter are described in detail. Test results show that Peak-to-Valley value smaller than 63nm of interference cavity is achieved.
A 500-mm-aperture wavelength-tuning phase-shifting interferometer has been developed in FOERC applied to the measurement of large optics. Also it can switches to a smaller 130-mm-aperture. We describes in detail the optical and mechanical design as well as calibration technique of phase shifter and phase-shifting algorithm design. A Zygo 4 inch standard reflective flat is used to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of our wavelength-tuning phase-shifting system.