This study concerns an orthogonal diffraction grating-based nanometer displacement sensor. In this study, we performed calculation of displacements in the XYZ directions. In the optical measured path part, we used a two-dimensional orthogonal motion grating and a two-dimensional orthogonal reference grating with the pitch of 0.5um to measure the displacement of XYZ in three directions by detecting ±1st diffraction fringes. The self-collimated structure of the grating greatly extended the Z-axis range. We also simulated the optical path of the sensor with ZEMAX software and verified the feasibility of the scheme. For signal subdivision and processing, we combined large number counting (completed grating line) with small number counting (digital subdivision), realizing high multiples of subdivision of grating interference signals. We used PC to process the interference fringes and greatly improved the processing speed. In the scheme, the theoretical multiples of subdivision could reach 1024 with 10-bit AD conversion, but the actual multiples of subdivision was limited by the quality of the grating interference signals. So we introduced an orthogonal compensation circuit and a filter circuit to improve the signal quality.
This research mainly focuses on precise pneumatic-electric displacement sensor which has large measurement range. Under the high precision, measurement range can be expanded so that the need of high precision as well as large range can be satisfied in the field of machining inspection technology. This research was started by the analysis of pneumatic-measuring theory. Then, an gas circuit measuring system which is based on differential pressure was designed. This designed system can reach two aims: Firstly, to convert displacement signal into gas signal; Secondly, to reduce the measurement error which caused by pressure and environmental turbulence. Furthermore, in consideration of the high requirement for linearity, sensitivity and stability, the project studied the pneumatic-electric transducer which puts the SCX series pressure sensor as a key part. The main purpose of this pneumatic-electric transducer is to convert gas signal to suitable electrical signal. Lastly, a broken line subsection linearization circuit was designed, which can nonlinear correct the output characteristic curve so as to enlarge the linear measurement range. The final result could be briefly described like this: under the condition that measuring error is less than 1μm, measurement range could be extended to approximately 200μm which is much higher than the measurement range of traditional pneumatic measuring instrument. Meanwhile, it can reach higher exchangeability and stability in order to become more suitable to engineering application.