Obtain accurate detection data on the distribution of water vapor and aerosol is the basis for researches on numerical weather prediction and dynamic meteorology. It also has great importance for finding haze formation and digestion mechanism. In this paper, the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) is employed to obtain the optical properties of the atmosphere such as optical depth and backscatter coefficient which are very helpful to get the accurate detection data on distribution and Interaction of water vapor and aerosol continuously. A forward simulation model is established to simulate the typical atmospheric conditions and aerosol distribution, and considered the presence of sunlight during the day and the background noise. The simulation result shows that the HSRL proposed here can perform well with satisfactory measurement accuracy for the altitudes below 8km, which is better than 10%, so that HSRL is very helpful to the improvement of the accuracy of weather forecasts and to the study on the prevention and control measures of haze and other weather disasters.