To date, remote sensing-based algorithms for inferring urban surface evapotranspiration (ET) remain little studied. Based on the modifications of the remote sensing Penman–Monteith (RS-PM) model, we propose an urban RS-PM model for estimating urban surface ET. Compared with the traditional RS-PM model, our urban RS-PM model is specifically developed for urban areas and is characterized by the following improvements: (1) excluding the interference of impervious surface components in urban areas by replacing the vegetation cover fraction index with land surface component fraction parameters inversed through linear spectral mixture analysis for calculating the area proportions of vegetation and soil; (2) considering the effect of the component fractions of vegetation or soil on all energy components of the surface energy balance by applying the modified multisource parallel model for estimating the component latent heat flux; and (3) optimizing the calculation of the component net radiation flux by considering the component surface characteristics. This urban RS-PM model was tested on an urban area of Xuzhou in the eastern Chinese province of Jiangsu. Landsat 8 operational land imager and thermal infrared sensor satellite images acquired between 2014 and 2016, together with their corresponding meteorological data and flux observation data, were used for estimating the ET of the study area for eight dates with the model. The results were validated by the latent heat flux data observed by an open path eddy covariance system. Validation shows the goodness of fit (R2), the root-mean-square error, the mean relative error, and the correlation coefficient (r) between estimated ET and observed ET for the eight dates were 0.8965, 24.14 W · m − 2, 18.5%, and 0.9546, respectively. The results prove that the urban RS-PM model is effective in estimating ET of urban areas with an acceptable accuracy.
In this paper, by use of multitemporal satellite remote sensing, the dynamic change of land use about Xuzhou coal mining area in the east of China was monitored and analyzed. Firstly, with the use of TM images of Xuzhou in 1987, 1994 and 2000, the change maps of land use structure of their relevant periods of its West coal mining area were compiled. Secondly, the conversion matrix of land use structure about the different temporal classified TM images was interpreted. Finally, the status of the dynamic change of land use was analyzed comprehensively. The results indicate: (1) The area of subsided land due to coal mining was increasing, its extent was all bigger in 1987-1994 and 1994-2000, the increase rate of subsided land change every year was 6.33%, and which was the biggest rate of all land use change. (2) The cultivated land was the main land subsided due to coal mining, but the main use direction after subsidence land reclaimed was not cultivated land, and the cultivated land subsided due to coal mining was far exceed to that reclaimed. (3) Although the rapid speed of subsided land reclamation, and the reclamation rate all over 50% in 1987-1994 and 1994-2000, yet the speed of land subsided was also quick, the speed of land reclamation did not catch up with that of land subsidence. Therefore, it is necessary to accelerate the land reclamation, and adopt the effective measures to raise the ratio of cultivated land reclaimed from subsided land.