Here we investigate the influence of the p- and n-oxide-aperture radii in all-semiconductor GaAs-based verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), designed for 980 nm, on the modulation time constant (τ). Our analysis shows that the minimum value of τ is obtained if the oxide layers on both sides of the junction have identical depths. The simulations of the number of oxide layers on both p- and n-type sides reveal that double p- and n-oxidations are the most effective in the reduction of the modulation time constant as compared to single oxide layers.
Single longitudinal mode operation of laterally coupled distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes (LDs) based on GaN containing 10th-order surface Bragg gratings with V-shaped grooves is demonstrated using i-line stepper lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. A threshold current of 82 mA, a slope efficiency of 1.7 W/A, a single peak emission at 404.5 nm with a full width at half maximum of 0.04 nm and a side mode suppression ratio of > 23 dB at an output power of about 46 mW were achieved under pulsed operation. The shift of the lasing wavelength of DFB LDs with temperature was around three times smaller than that of conventional ridge waveguide LDs.
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the UVB (280 nm – 315 nm) spectral range are of particular interest for applications such as plant growth lighting or phototherapy. In fact, LEDs offer numerous advantages compared to conventional ultraviolet light sources such as a tunable emission wavelength, a small form factor, and a minimal environmental impact. State-of-the-art devices utilize p-GaN and low aluminum mole fraction p-AlGaN layers to enable good ohmic contacts and low series resistances. However, these layers are also not transparent to UVB light thus limiting the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The exploitation of UV-transparent p-AlGaN layers together with high reflective metal contacts may significantly increase the LEE. In this paper, the output power of LEDs emitting at 310 nm with a UV-transparent and absorbing Mg-doped AlGaN superlattice is compared. A three-fold increase of the output power was observed for LEDs with UV-transparent p-AlGaN layers. To investigate these findings, LEDs with low reflective Ni/Au and high reflective Al contacts are fabricated and characterized. Together with ray tracing simulations and detailed measurements of the metal reflectivities, we were able to determine the LEE and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). According to on-wafer measurements, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) increases from 0.3% for an absorbing p-Al0.2Ga0.8N/Al0.4Ga0.6N-superlattice with Ni/Au contacts to 0.9% for a UV-transparent p-Al0.4Ga0.6N/Al0.6Ga0.4N-superlattice with Al contacts. This 3× enhancement of the EQE can be partially ascribed to an improved LEE (from 4.5% to 7.5%) in combination with a 1.8× increase of the IQE when using a p-Al0.4Ga0.6N/Al0.6Ga0.4N-superlattice instead of a p-Al0.2Ga0.8N/Al0.4Ga0.6N-superlattice.
We demonstrate picosecond pulse generation in the blue-violet wavelength region by passive intra-cavity mode-locking in GaN-based ridge waveguide laser diodes with monolithically integrated absorbers. For cavity lengths of 1.2 and 0.6 mm we observe repetition frequencies of 40 and 90 GHz, and pulse lengths of 7 and 4 ps, respectively. The results are explained by an extremely short, tunneling dominated carrier life time in the saturable absorber at high negative bias. The fast depletion of the charge carriers in the absorber is investigated by bias-dependent life-time measurements in the absorber.