Technologies for the 3D integration are described within this paper with respect to devices that have to retain a specific minimum wafer thickness for handling purposes (CMOS) and integrity of mechanical elements (MEMS). This implies <i>Through-Silicon Vias </i>(TSVs) with large dimensions and high aspect ratios (HAR). Moreover, as a main objective, the aspired TSV technology had to be universal and scalable with the designated utilization in a MEMS/CMOS foundry. Two TSV approaches are investigated and discussed, in which the TSVs were fabricated either before or after wafer thinning. One distinctive feature is an incomplete TSV <i>Cu</i>-filling, which avoids long processing and complex process control, while minimizing the thermomechanical stress between <i>Cu</i> and <i>Si</i> and related adverse effects in the device. However, the incomplete filling also includes various challenges regarding process integration. A method based on pattern plating is described, in which TSVs are metalized at the same time as the redistribution layer and which eliminates the need for additional planarization and patterning steps. For MEMS, the realization of a protective hermetically sealed capping is crucial, which is addressed in this paper by glass frit wafer level bonding and is discussed for hermetic sealing of MEMS inertial sensors. The TSV based 3D integration technologies are demonstrated on CMOS like test vehicle and on a MEMS device fabricated in <i>Air Gap Insulated Microstructure </i>(AIM) technology.
We investigated both experimentally and by simulation, non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) 4-ary PAM operating at 20 Gb/s. A simple scheme to realize the quadratic signal leveling by suitably driving a MZ modulator is proposed, which provides greater than 6 dB improvement in receiver sensitivity as compared to equal level spacing. We experimentally demonstrated NRZ and RZ 10 Gbaud/s 4-ARY PAM transmissions over an 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) link as a proof of concept and more detailed experimental results over longer reach will follow. Numerical simulations for the 4-ary PAM performance over longer distances (>200 km) are also presented.