Iron oxide/cellulose nanocomposite film is fabricated by impregnation of iron oxide nanoparticles into a regenerated cellulose film. The crystal structure, chemical functional group, morphological analysis, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films are investigated by the wide-angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical pull test. The investigated results show that the iron oxide is interacted with hydroxyl groups of the regenerated cellulose film. The tensile strength and elastic modulus of iron oxide/cellulose films are significantly enhanced up to 39% and 57% of pristine regenerated cellulose film, respectively.
Cellulose is one of attractive natural polysaccharides in nature due to its good chemical stability, mechanical strength, biocompatibility, hydrophilic, and biodegradation properties [1-2]. The main disadvantages of biopolymer films like cellulose are their poor mechanical properties. Modification of polymers with inorganic materials is a new way to improve polymer properties such as mechanical strength [3-4]. Presently, the use of graphene/graphene oxide (GO) in materials research has attracted tremendous attention in the past 40 years in various fields including biomedicine, information technology and nanotechnology[5-7]. Graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has an ideal 2D structure with a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb crystal plane. Using both experimental and theoretical scientific research, researchers including Geim, Rao and Stankovich [8-10] have described the attractiveness of graphene in the materials research field. Due to its sp<sup>2</sup> hybrid carbon network as well as extraordinary mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties, graphene has opened new pathways for developing a wide range of novel functional materials. Perfect graphene does not exist naturally, but bulk and solution processable functionalized graphene materials including graphene oxide (GO) can now be prepared [11-13].The large surface area of GO has a number of functional groups, such as -OH, -COOH, -O- , and C=O, which make GO hydrophilic and readily dispersible in water as well as some organic solvents , thereby providing a convenient access to fabrication of graphene-based materials by solution casting. According to several reports [15-17], GO can be dispersed throughout a selected polymer matrix to make GO-based nanocomposites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Since GO is prepared from low-cost graphite, it has an outstanding price advantage over CNTs, which has encouraged studies of GO/synthetic polymer composites [18-20]. In some reported papers, graphene oxide has also been used to reinforce polysaccharide matrices such as carboxymethyl cellulose-starch. Here, we report a simple and environmentally benign preparation of GO/cellulose nanocomposite films by a simple solution mixing-curing method.
Reconfigurable lens is biomimetic as it mimics human eye and is a transparent actuating material that can change its curvature in the presence of external stimuli. Focus tunable, adaptive lenses provide several advantages over traditional lens assemblies in terms of compactness, cost, efficiency and flexibility. To further improve the simplicity and compact nature of adaptive lenses, we present lens system which makes use of an inline, transparent electro active polymer actuator. This paper reports the preliminary development we have achieved in reconfigurable lens systems made with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the principle of Kerr effect. Preparation of the hydrophobic CNC solution as well as the optical properties of the lens has been discussed. This soft gel actuator was analyzed by measuring the electric birefringence in the pulse field of constant and sinusoidal voltage based on the use of modulation of elliptic light polarization.