As EUV approaches high volume manufacturing, reticle defectivity becomes an even more relevant topic for further investigation. Current baseline strategy for EUV defectivity management is to design, build and maintain a clean system without pellicle. In order to secure reticle front side particle adders to an acceptable level for high volume manufacturing, EUV pellicle is being actively investigated. Last year ASML reported on our initial EUV pellicle feasibility. In this paper, we will update on our progress since then. We will also provide an update to pellicle requirements published last year. Further, we present experimental results showing the viability and challenges of potential EUV pellicle materials, including, material properties, imaging capability, scalability and manufacturability.
Since the wafer industry is using an increasing amount of double side polished wafers, the future of wafer metrology is very likely to shift from capacitance gauging techniques to optical measurement techniques. Participating in an international project the Technical University of Eindhoven is developing a self calibrating, traceable double side wafer flatness and thickness measurement device. By using proper measurement principles and advanced software a robust and traceable wafer thickness and flatness measurement instrument is created which combines high lateral resolution, nanometer accuracy, high speed and low cost.
Laser interferometer systems are known for their high resolution, and especially for their high range/resolution ratio. In dimensional metrology laboratories, laser interferometers are popular workhorses for the calibration of displacements. The uncertainty is usually limited to about 10 nm due to polarization- and frequency mixing. For demanding applications however nanometer uncertainty is desired.
We adapted a commercially available heterodyne laser interferometer by feeding the measurement signal into a fast lock-in amplifier and use the laser interferometer reference signal as a reference. By measuring both the in-phase and quadrature component an uncorrected phase can be directly measured. By recording both components while the phase changes between 0 and 2π a typical ellipse is recorded from which the first and second harmonics of periodic deviations can be derived. These can be corrected independent of their origin. Measurements show that this method can reduce severe non-linearities (40 nm top-bottom) to a standard deviation of about 0.02 nm. Also, optical set-ups can be analysed to predict the non-linearities when a non-compensated standard interferometer is used.