A non contact all-optical method for surface photoacoustic is described. The surface acoustic waves were excited employing a ArF excimer laser in the 10 µm thin polyimide film and detected with a Michelson interferometer using 633 nm HeNe laser due to an active stabilization for interferometer a surface displacement of 0.2 A. could be detected used for the purpose of discriminating between normal and maligned tissue. The acoustic waves propagate several millimeters in the sample differentiating maligned areas from normal breast tissue samples which having different acoustic impedance.
Time-resolved photoacoustic imaging has been used to characterize Breast tissues for the purpose of discriminating between normal and Cancerous tumor areas of tissue. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in Breast tissue by the absorption of nanosecond laser pulses at 193 nm produced by a frequency doubled Q-switched excimer laser in conjunction with an optical interferometer sensor was used to detect the thermoelastic and thermal waves. At 193 nm, differences in photoacoustic and photothermal signatures of normal tissue and Cancerous tumor were found to be highly enhanced. There was a clear and reproducible difference between the photacoustic and photothermal response of Cancerous tumor and normal tissue as a result of increased optical attenuation in Cancerous tumor. At 193 nm, the generation of subsurface thermoelastic waves provided a means of determining the structure and thickness of the tissue sample. The thermal waves provided a mean of determination the optical absorption of the tissue sample.
Digital elevation models (DEMs) are important tools in the planning, design and maintenance of mobile communication networks. This research paper proposes a method for generating high accuracy DEMs based on SPOT satellite 1A stereo pair images, ground control points (GCP) and Erdas OrthoBASE Pro image processing software. DEMs with 0.2911 m mean error were achieved for the hilly and heavily populated city of Amman. The generated DEM was used to design a mobile communication network resulted in a minimum number of radio base transceiver stations, maximum number of covered regions and less than 2% of dead zones.