Dr. Malcolm R. Howells
Senior Physicist Emeritus
SPIE Involvement:
Track Chair | Author | Instructor
Publications (23)

Proceedings Article | 23 September 2011 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 8141, Advances in Computational Methods for X-Ray Optics II
KEYWORDS: Mirrors, Monochromatic aberrations, Solids, X-rays, Grazing incidence, Optical metrology, X-ray optics, Commercial off the shelf technology, Synchrotrons, Shape analysis

Proceedings Article | 4 September 2009 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 7448, Advances in X-Ray/EUV Optics and Components IV
KEYWORDS: X-ray optics, Mirrors, Grazing incidence, Optics manufacturing, Polishing, Ray tracing, Surface finishing, Solids, Geometrical optics, Spherical lenses

Proceedings Article | 17 September 2005 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 5921, Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics
KEYWORDS: Mirrors, Modulation transfer functions, Spatial frequencies, X-rays, Scattering, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray optics, Interferometry, Microscopes, Surface finishing

Proceedings Article | 29 August 2005 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 5858, Nano- and Micro-Metrology
KEYWORDS: Modulation transfer functions, Spatial frequencies, Mirrors, Microscopes, Sensors, X-ray optics, Objectives, Information operations, Interferometry, X-rays

Proceedings Article | 24 December 2002 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 4782, X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II
KEYWORDS: Mirrors, Plating, Nickel, Polishing, X-rays, Heat treatments, Surface finishing, Carbon, Manganese, Gemini Planet Imager

Showing 5 of 23 publications
Proceedings Volume Editor (3)

SPIE Conference Volume | 1 December 1998

SPIE Conference Volume | 3 May 1982

Conference Committee Involvement (4)
Crystals, Multilayers, and Other Synchrotron Optics
5 August 2003 | San Diego, California, United States
Time Structure of X-Ray Sources and Its Applications
23 July 1998 | San Diego, CA, United States
Coherent Electron-Beam X-Ray Sources: Techniques and Applications
31 July 1997 | San Diego, CA, United States
Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation
16 November 1981 | Upton, United States
Course Instructor
SC493: Synchrotron Radiation Beam Lines: An Optical Engineering Perspective
This course provides an overview of the fundamentals of the physics and engineering of optical systems for synchrotron radiation beam lines. It begins by describing the production of synchrotron radiation and the flux, brightness, spectral and angular distribution, power output and coherence properties of bending-magnet and undulator sources. The methods by which these highly polarized x-ray beams can be steered and focused by means of grazing-incidence mirrors are discussed initially from an engineering standpoint. This includes the design and fabrication of mirror substrates (cooled and uncooled, metal and ceramic), the polishing of optical surfaces and the shaping of mirrors, especially elliptical cylinders, by elastic deformation. The mathematical treatment of optical path function method will be provided but in documentary form only. The lecture will concentrate on how to apply its results to practical beam line design issues. The treatment applies to all mirrors and reflection gratings in a unified way and allows the aberrations to be understood and calculated for all surface shapes and groove distributions. Finally the optical and engineering principles established above will be applied to the design of practical soft x-ray monochromators such as spherical- and plane-grating schemes (SGMs and PGMs) including the collimated-light SX700. Finally, the current design options for soft x-ray beam lines are summarized with some discussion of future possibilities.
SC222: Optical Systems for Synchrotron Radiation
This course provides the fundamentals of the physics and engineering of optical systems for synchrotron radiation beam lines. It describes the production and properties of bending-magnet and undulator radiation. The steering and focusing of x-rays using grazing-incidence mirrors are discussed from an engineering standpoint. This includes the design and fabrication of mirror substrates (cooled and uncooled, metal and ceramic), the polishing of optical surfaces and the shaping of mirrors by elastic deformation. The design of practical soft x-ray monochromators is presented with emphasis on spherical- and plane grating schemes (SGMs and PGMs). Finally the current design options for soft x-ray beam lines are summarized with some discussion of future possibilities.
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