The long-term goal of the project is to create and justify a reliable mathematical model that expresses the efficiency of geometrical shapes of non-tracking flexible solar panels. However, the amount of solar energy absorbed by a non-tracking flexible solar panel depends on many parameters: the direction of the sun beam, reflected light, and temperature, etc., which would make a complete model mathematically complicated. In the current model, we limit our consideration to the direction of the sunbeam. In order to simulate the exposure of the panel, we describe the trajectory of the Sun and base the model on the mathematical flux that uses the sun rays as the vector field. To be precise, the efficiency of a geometrical panel is defined as the flux density, which is the ratio of the mathematical flux and the surface area. Our current model was evaluated for the latitude of New York City and we determined the efficiency of the optimized at panels, cylindrical panels, and conical panels. The analysis was largely done through geometrical studies and numerical integration with software programs Python, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB.
The purpose of this research is to analyze mathematically cylindrical shapes of flexible solar panels and compare their efficiency to the flat panels. The efficiency is defined to be the flux density, which is the ratio of the mathematical flux and the surface area. In addition we describe the trajectory of the Sun at specific locations: the North Pole, The Equator and a geostationary satellite above the Equator. The calculations were performed with software: Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB.
The diversity traffic requirements, reliability communication infrastructure, and the real-time end-to-end (E2E) latencies are some of the major communication challenges to support a diverse set of emerging Internet of Things (IoT) applications include Smart Grid (SG) applications. For instance, using point-to-point fibers between each device and the controller has been reported, previously, as one of the solutions to address the E2E latency requirements. However, even with the fiber capacity, utilizing the technique was limited due to its excessive cost. Hence, using a commercial multiservice cellular network such as Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is a considerable solution due to the high-performance metrics: high throughput, low latency, higher reliability, and large bandwidth.<p> </p>In this paper, we propose an uplink LTE Cascaded Priority-based scheduling algorithm (CPb) that supports a diverse set of Smart Grid (SG) applications, and improves the performance metrics compared to other two well-known schedulers, Proportional Fairness (PF) and Round Robin (RR). The proposed CPb algorithm uses a differentiation technique, applying the Time Domain Scheduler (TDS) and the Frequency Domain Scheduler (FDS), to meet the various SG traffic requirements and types for massive Machin-to-Machine (M2M) devices. Four SG traffic types for each M2M device are used in this study: (1) SG delay sensitive event-driven traffic is used as a SG Distribution Automation (DA), (2) Time driven traffic is used for the other SG types of traffic, including video surveillance, (3) Power quality data, and (4) Periodic Advanced Meter Infrastructure (AMI) data. The CPb results show a significant improvement in the performance metrics compared to the PF and RR schedulers, according to the LTE QoS Class Identifier (QCI) parameters.
The purpose of this study is to analyze various surfaces of flexible solar panels and compare them to the traditional at panels mathematically. We evaluated the efficiency based on the integral formulas that involve flux. We performed calculations for flat panels with different positions, a cylindrical panel, conical panels with various opening angles and segments of a spherical panel. Our results indicate that the best efficiency per unit area belongs to particular segments of spherically-shaped panels. In addition, we calculated the optimal opening angle of a cone-shaped panel that maximizes the annual accumulation of the sun radiation per unit area. The considered shapes are presented below with a suggestion for connections of the cells.