The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite- 2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") is the latest L-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). PALSAR-2 observes the world mainly with 10 m resolution / 70 km swath Stripmap mode and 25 m resolution / 350 km swath ScanSAR mode. The 3-m resolution Stripmap mode is mainly used upon Japan. 350 km ScanSAR observation could detect large scale deformation e.g., the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks in 2015. ALOS-2 ScanSAR is the first one that supports ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry in L-band spaceborne SAR. However, because of the parameter setting error for the orbit estimation, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR could achieve little number of interferometric pair until the software modification on February 8, 2015. That is, the burst overlap timing required for the interferometric analysis was insufficient and it depends on the observation date. In this paper, we report the investigation results of this case and discuss the current status of the ALOS-2 ScanSAR InSAR. Some archives achieved before February 8, 2015 can be used for interferometric analysis with after Feb. 8. However, most of them have no interferometric pair. We also report that the archives acquired after February 8, have enough burst overlapping.
Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") performed various emergency observation with its Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) in Asia in 2015. Especially for corresponding to the emergency request from Sentinel Asia related to the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake 2015, PALSAR-2 successfully detected not only the crustal deformation but also the avalanches and local displacements. In this presentation, we describe these performances, analysis and the other emergency observations.
In this research, we present methods for monitoring deforestation and examining implication of the forest policies in forest carbon stocks in the future utilizing ALOS-PALSAR data. Riau Province of central Sumatra is selected for the study as it has received worldwide attention due to high forest–related carbon emissions. An aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) model was calibrated with field measurement data and L-band backscatters from high-resolution slope corrected PALSAR mosaic data of 2009 and 2010. A total of 87 plots of field measured AFCS data ranging 1 - 340 t/ha was used. This AFCS model provides the AFCS map with RMSE of ±45 t/ha. The AFCS modeling results was extrapolated across the province using the mosaic data. The model estimated 315 million tons of AFCS in the province in 2010. A spatial model was used to spatialize three forest policy scenarios. These scenario maps were overlaid with AFCS map for deriving future perspective on AFCS. The future spatial patterns of the AFCS between the policy scenarios are apparent. If the historical trend continues, the forest cover will be consistently disappeared leaving very few small forest patches and releasing 77% of the current AFCS in to the atmosphere by 2030. However, one of the governance scenarios in the province indicates that almost half of the carbon emission can be reduced in the same period.
The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) that has been developed in a collaboration of ESO, NRAO, NAOJ and the Joint ALMA Observatory for well over a decade is an integrated end-to-end software system of about six million lines of source code. As we enter the third cycle of science observations, we reflect on some of the decisions taken and call out ten topics where we could have taken a different approach at the time, or would take a different approach in today’s environment. We believe that these lessons learned should be helpful as the next generation of large telescope projects move into their construction phases.
On March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake occurred on the eastern coast of Japan. The magnitude 9.0 quake was the most
powerful ever recorded in Japan. The height of the tsunami that followed the earthquake was estimated to be more than
10 m. The water reached a few kilometers inland and resulted in thousands of casualties as well as serious damage to
buildings and agricultural areas along the coastline. Several PiSAR-L2 observations were carried out in these tsunamiaffected
areas from April to September in 2012, and field experiments were performed in agricultural areas that had been
damaged by seawater. The complex dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity of the soil were measured to
estimate the soil’s salinity. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant for a tsunami-damaged area 0.7 km from the
coastline was shown to be 37.1 at 1 GHz, and the electric conductivity was shown to be 7.8 mS/cm. These values
exceeded those from non-damaged inland areas. One of the full polarimetric parameters, co-polarization backscattering
ratio (σ<sup>0</sup><sub>HH</sub>/σ0<sub>VV</sub>) derived from PiSAR-L2 data, were examined and compared for damaged/non-damaged areas. The
analysis indicates that the higher-salinity area was well detected by σ<sup>0</sup><sub>HH</sub>/σ0<sub>VV</sub>. However, water areas and flat surfaces
covered by gravel exhibit similar characteristics, and this may result in the false detection of salt-affected agricultural