Gold nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia is a non-invasive, target-based cancer treatment with significantly reduced side effects compared to conventional treatments. In this work a simulation model for gold nanoparticlemediated hyperthermia is set up and used to investigate the case of a liver tumor located in the vicinity of a hepatic vein. Gold nanorods with optimized size and aspect ratio are embedded within the liver, and the temperature raise under CW laser illumination is calculated, while taking into account the convective heat transfer through blood perfusion. For this purpose, an analytical model based on the Navier-Stokes equation is used. Results show that due to the heat drain in the blood stream, an effective temperature raise is not achievable when the tumor is located in the vicinity of the hepatic vein. Additionally it is shown that even in the case of a 90% occluded vein, the temperature raise with such nanoparticle arrangement is still not enough for tumor ablation.
We propose the use of one-dimensional semiperiodic front and back gratings based on Thue–Morse, Fibonacci, and Rudin–Shapiro (RS) binary sequences as promising photon management techniques for enhancing ultra-broadband optical absorption in thin-film solar cells. The semiperiodicity allows an aggregate light in-coupling into the active layer within the range of the solar spectrum that is less weak compared to an inherently broadband random grating, but has a much larger bandwidth than the strong in-coupling via a periodic grating configuration. The proper design procedure proposed here deviates from a canonical double grating synthesis as it adheres to an ultra-broadband design where the spectrally integrated absorption in the active material is the proper subject to optimization, leaving the grating perturbations just a measure to perturb and mold the trapped light field in the active layer accordingly. It is shown that by using a well-defined RS double grating in a 400-nm thick crystalline silicon solar cell, a 110.2% enhancement of the spectrally integrated optical absorption can be achieved relative to the reference case without grating.