Accelerated depletion of fossil fuel, energy demands, and pollution force us to choose renewable and eco-friendly energy resources. Solar cells are considered as an efficient replacement for fossil fuel. In the family of solar cells, silicon-based solar cells and perovskite solar cells (PSC) have displayed significant power conversion efficiency (PCE). Perovskites have been investigated extensively over the past two decades, due to their advantageous properties, such as high absorption coefficient, efficient carrier mobility, long charge diffusion length, and direct bandgap. These features make PSC a prospective candidate to replace silicon in solar cells. By 2018, PSC achieved an encouraging PCE of 23.3%. However, low stability and toxicity have retarded the commercialization of PSC. With the aim of assisting junior researchers, we consider the latest achievements in this domain and review the field from a stability and performance perspective. We emphasize recent developments and methodologies to overcome drawbacks concerning stability and toxicity.
In this work, we present the enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) photodetection of Ag-ZnO thin film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The surface morphological, optical, structural, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated by various characterization techniques. With this Ag-ZnO thin film structure and proper geometry of metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) interdigitated structure design, photocurrent enhancement has been accomplished. MSM-photodetectors (PDs) using structures of Ag-ZnO gave a 30 times higher magnitude photocurrent at 340 nm of the wavelength. Plasmon-induced hot electrons contributed to improved spectral response to the UV region, while absorption and scattering effect enhanced broadband improvement to a response in the VIS–IR spectrum range. The improvement of Ag-ZnO PD in comparison with ZnO is attributed to the surface plasmon effect using Ag nanodisks. These results indicate that Ag-ZnO thin films can serve as excellent ultraviolet-PD and a very promising candidate for practical applications.