There are many optical metrological techniques to determine the profile of a surface or a wave-front. A group of them
are based on the measurements of the profile slopes, like deflectometry or wave-front sensors. In both sensors, the profile
is then obtained by integrating the gradient information provided by the measurements. The used integration method
influences the quality of the obtained results. In this work we compare the performance of different bi-dimensional
integration methods to obtain the profile from the slopes, and we propose some new methods. The first kind of methods
is based on a path integral, in which the profile in a given point (x,y) is obtained by a 1D integral from (0,0) to (x,0)
followed by a 1D integral from (x,0) to (x,y). The second kind of methods is based on finite differences, where the
profile in a point is related with the profile in the neighbor points and the slopes of those points. On these methods
different interpolations can be used. Finally, the third kind of methods is based on Fourier domain integration.
Several simulation results are obtained to study the influence of several parameters: spatial frequency of the signal, local
slope errors, random noise, and edge effects. Fourier domain methods could be considered as the gold standard, they
suffer from edge effects because the signals are not periodic. Moreover they can only be applied when regular Cartesian
sampling is used. Path integral methods create artifacts along the integration paths, when local errors are present. Finite
difference methods are more versatile, and their accuracy depends on the used interpolation methods.
In the Physics degree in Spain the students have a mandatory course in Fundamentals of Optics as well as an Optics Laboratory course. With these two courses the students receive a general background of optics. There are also some optional courses on Optics in the last years of the degree. One of them is a course on Optical Image Processing and Holography. This course has 60 hours (equivalent to 6 credits of a total number of 300 credits in the Physics degree). Fifteen hours of the course correspond to the laboratory experiments. In this contribution we will describe the contents of this laboratory experiments and we will also discuss the influence of this laboratory in the background of a physicist. The laboratory works consist of three lab experiments about the following topics: Diffraction, Coherent Spatial Frequency Optical Filtering and Holography. Optical Image Processing and Holography course survey of students’ opinion is presented to analyze different pedagogical aspects.