GIANO-B is the high resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which started its regular operations in October 2017. Here we present GIANO-B Online Data Reduction Software (DRS) operating at the Telescope.
GIANO-B Online DRS is a complete end-to-end solution for the spectrograph real-time data handling. The Online DRS provides management, processing and archival of GIANO-B scientific and calibration data. Once the instrument control software acquires the exposure ramp segments from the detector, the DRS ensures the complete data flow until the final data products are ingested into the science archive. A part of the Online DRS is GOFIO software, which performs the reduction process from ramp-processed 2D spectra to extracted and calibrated 1D spectra.
A User Interface (UI) developed as a part of the Online DRS provides basic information on the final reduced data, thus allowing the observer to take decisions in real-time during the night and adjust the observational strategy as needed.
GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both high resolution spectrographs, HARPS–N (VIS) and GIANO–B (NIR), working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a resolution of 50,000 in the NIR range and 115,000 in the VIS and over in a wide spectral range (0.383−2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and its large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planets search and hot Jupiters to atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instruments can measure high precision radial velocities by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS–N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO–B) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. GIARPS, as a brand new observing mode of the TNG started after the moving of GIANO–A (fiber fed spectrograph) from Nasmyth–A to Nasmyth–B where it was re–born as GIANO–B (no more fiber feed spectrograph). The official Commissioning finished on March 2017 and then it was offered to the community. Despite the work is not finished yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary scientific results obtained with GIANO–B and GIARPS observing mode with data taken during commissioning and first open time observations.
The NIR echelle spectrograph GIANO-B at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo is equipped with a fully automated online DRS: part of this pipeline is the GOFIO reduction software, that processes all the observed data, from the calibrations to the nodding or stare images. GOFIO reduction process includes bad pixel and cosmic removal, flat-field and blaze correction, optimal extraction, wavelength calibration, nodding or stare group processing. An offline version of GOFIO will allow the users to adapt the reduction to their needs, and to compute the radial velocity using telluric lines as a reference system. GIANO-B may be used simultaneously with HARPS-N in the GIARPS observing mode to obtain high-resolution spectra in a wide wavelength range (383-2450 nm) with a single acquisition. In this framework, GOFIO, as part of the online DRS, provides fast and reliable data reduction during the night, in order to compare the infrared and visible observations on the fly.
This article describes the works we are doing for modifying the interface between the high resolution infrared spectrograph GIANO (0.97-2.4 micron) and the TNG telescope, passing from a fiber feed configuration to the original design of a direct light-feeding from the telescope to the spectrograph. So doing the IR spectrograph, GIANO, will work in parallel to HARPS-N spectrometer (0.38-0.70 micron), the visible high resolution spectrograph, thanks to a new telescope interface based on a dichroic window that simultaneously feeds the two instrumentes: this is GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS). The scientific aims of this project are to improve the radial velocity accuracy achievable with GIANO, down to a goal of 1 m/s, the value necessary to detect Earth-mass planets on habitable orbits around late-M stars, to implement simultaneous observations with Harps-N and GIANO optimizing the study of planets around cool stars. The very broad wavelengths range is particularly important to discriminate false radial velocity signals caused by stellar activity. We therefore include several absorption cells with different mixtures of gases and a stabilized Fabry Perot cavity, necessary to have absorption lines over the 0.97–2.4 microns range covered by GIANO. The commissioning of GIARPS is scheduled by the end of 2016.
The Multi-Object Optical and Near-Infrared Spectrograph (MOONS) shall be installed at one of the Very Large Telescopes (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Paranal Chile. The instrument is being designed and built by an international consortium on behalf of ESO. The design is based on a three arms configuration, RI, YJ and H band, where RI and H have two possible resolutions. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to implement a sliding mechanism changing the dispersers, the filters and the cross dispersion prisms. This article describes the cryogenic exchanger mechanism that is under realization and the preliminary mechanical and optical tests that we have done at the cryogenic facility of Arcetri observatory of Florence. Parts of these test are based on interferometric measurements of the optics to study the behaviour of the mechanical supporting structure, and part are based on the cryogenic sliding system that will be used to move approximately 200 Kg of mass for 350 mm of travel range. The cryogenic sliding system, rails, screws, motors, is based on commercial components as the position measurement device that is based on commercial potentiometers. The results of the tests and performances at cryogenic temperature are reported in this paper.
SOXS (Son Of X-Shooter) will be a unique spectroscopic facility for the ESO-NTT 3.5-m telescope in La Silla (Chile), able to cover the optical/NIR band (350-1750 nm). The design foresees a high-efficiency spectrograph with a resolutionslit product of ~4,500, capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range 350 - 1750 nm with a good sensitivity, with light imaging capabilities in the visible band. This paper outlines the status of the project.
GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both the high resolution spectrographs HARPS-N (VIS) and GIANO (NIR) working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a high resolution (R=115,000 in the visual and R=50,000 in the IR) and over in a wide spectral range (0.383 - 2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and the large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planet search and hot Jupiters, atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instrument can measure high precision radial velocity by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS - N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. Young stars and proto- planetary disks, cool stars and stellar populations, moving minor bodies in the solar system, bursting young stellar objects, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binary transients in our Galaxy, supernovae up to gamma-ray bursts in the very distant and young Universe, can take advantage of the unicity of this facility both in terms of contemporaneous wide wavelength range and high resolution spectroscopy.
This paper presents the latest optical design for the MOONS triple-arm spectrographs. MOONS will be a Multi-Object
Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph and will be installed on one of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very
Large Telescopes (VLT). Included in this paper is a trade-off analysis of different types of collimators, cameras,
dichroics and filters.
Present telescopes and future extremely large telescopes make use of fiber-fed spectrographs to observe at optical and
infrared wavelengths. The use of fibers largely simplifies the interfacing of the spectrograph to the telescope. At a high
spectral resolution (R>50,000) the fibers can be used to achieve very high spectral accuracy.
GIANO is an infrared (0.95-2.5μm) high resolution (R=50,000) spectrometer   that was recently commissioned
at the TNG telescope (La Palma). This instrument was designed and built for direct feeding from the telescope .
However, due to constraints imposed on the telescope interfacing during the pre-commissioning phase, it had to be
positioned on the rotating building, far from the telescope focus. Therefore, a new interface to the telescope, based on
IR-transmitting ZBLAN fibers with 85μm core, was developed.
In this article we report the first, preliminary results of the effects of these fibers on the quality of the recorded spectra
with GIANO and with a similar spectrograph that we set-up in the laboratory. The effects can be primarily associated to
modal-noise (MN) that, in GIANO, is much more evident than in optical spectrometers, because of the much longer
Giano is a Cryogenic Spectrograph located in T.N.G. (Spain) and commissioned in 2013. It works in the range 950-2500
nm with a resolving power of 50000.
This instrument was designed and built for direct feeding from the telescope . However, due to constraints imposed on
the telescope interfacing during the pre-commissioning phase, it had to be positioned on the rotating building, far from
the telescope focus. Therefore, a new interface to the telescope, based on IR-transmitting ZBLAN fibers with 85μm core,
was developed. Originally designed to work directly at the f/11 nasmyth focus of the telescope, in 2011 it has decided to
use a fiber to feed it.
The beam from the telescope is focused on a double fiber boundle by a Preslit Optical Bench attached to the Nasmith A
interface of the telescope. This Optical Bench contains the fiber feeding system and other important features as a guiding
system, a fiber viewer, a fiber feed calibration lamp and a nodding facility between the two fibers. The use of two fibers
allow us to have in the echellogram two spectrograms side by side in the same acquisition: one of the star and the other
of the sky or simultaneously to have the star and a calibration lamp. Before entering the cryostat the light from the fiber
is collected by a second Preslit Optical Bench attached directly to the Giano cryostat: on this bench the correct f-number
to illuminate the cold stop is generated and on the same bench is placed an image slicer to increase the efficiency of the