Endoscopic images suffer from a fundamental spatial distortion due to the wide angle design of the endoscope lens. This
barrel-type distortion is an obstacle for subsequent Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) algorithms and should be
corrected. Various methods and research models for the barrel-type distortion correction have been proposed and
studied. For industrial applications, a stable, robust method with high accuracy is required to calibrate the different types
of endoscopes in an easy of use way. The correction area shall be large enough to cover all the regions that the
physicians need to see. In this paper, we present our endoscope distortion correction procedure which includes data
acquisition, distortion center estimation, distortion coefficients calculation, and look-up table (LUT) generation. We
investigate different polynomial models used for modeling the distortion and propose a new one which provides
correction results with better visual quality. The method has been verified with four types of colonoscopes. The
correction procedure is currently being applied on human subject data and the coefficients are being utilized in a
subsequent 3D reconstruction project of colon.
A system for interstitial photodynamic therapy is used in the treatment of thick skin tumors. The system allows simultaneous measurements of light fluence rate, sensitizer fluorescence, and tissue oxygen saturation by using the same fibers as for therapeutic light delivery. Results from ten tumor treatments using -aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX show a significant, treatment-induced increase in tissue absorption at the therapeutic wavelength, and rapid sensitizer photobleaching. The changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin content are monitored by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, revealing a varying tissue oxygenation and significant changes in blood volume during treatment. These changes are consistent with the temporal profiles of the light fluence rate at the therapeutic wavelength actually measured. We therefore propose the observed absorption increase to be due to treatment-induced deoxygenation in combination with changes in blood concentration within the treated volume. A higher rate of initial photobleaching is found to correlate with a less pronounced increase in tissue absorption. Based on the measured signals, we propose how real-time treatment supervision and feedback can be implemented. Simultaneous study of the fluence rate, sensitizer fluorescence, and local tissue oxygen saturation level may contribute to the understanding of the threshold dose for photodynamic therapy.
Colposcopy is a primary diagnostic method used to detect cancer and precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. During the examination, the metaplastic and abnormal tissues exhibit different degrees of whiteness (acetowhitening effect) after applying a 3%-5% acetic acid solution. Colposcopists evaluate the color and density of the acetowhite tissue to assess the severity of lesions for the purpose of diagnosis, telemedicine, and annotation. However, the color and
illumination of the colposcopic images vary with the light sources, the instruments and camera settings, as well as the clinical environments. This makes assessment of the color information very challenging even for an expert. In terms of developing a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy, these variations affect the performance of the feature extraction algorithm for the acetowhite color. Non-uniform illumination from the light source is also an obstacle for detecting acetowhite regions, lesion margins and anatomic features. Therefore, in digital colposcopy, it is critical to map the color appearance of the images taken with different colposcopes into one standard color space with normalized
illumination. This paper presents a novel image calibration technique for colposcopic images. First, a specially designed
calibration unit is mounted on the colposcope to acquire daily calibration data prior to performing patient examinations.
The calibration routine is fast, automated, accurate and reliable. We then use our illumination correction algorithm and a color calibration algorithm to calibrate the patient data. In this paper we describe these techniques and demonstrate their applications in clinical studies.
Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.
Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer relies on the presence of light, sensitizer and oxygen. By monitoring these three parameters during the treatment a better understanding and treatment control could possibly be achieved. Here we present data from in vivo treatments of solid skin tumors using an instrument for interstitial photodynamic therapy with integrated dosimetric monitoring. By using intra-tumoral ALA-administration and interstitial light delivery solid tumors are targeted. The same fibers are used for measuring the fluence rate at the treatment wavelength, the sensitizer fluorescence and the local blood oxygen saturation during the treatment. The data presented is based on 10 treatments in 8 patients with thick basal cell carcinomas. The fluence rate measurements at 635 nm indicate a major treatment induced absorption increase, leading to a limited light penetration at the treatment wavelength. This leads to a far from optimal treatment since the absorption increase prevents peripheral tumor regions from being fully treated. An interactive treatment has been implemented assisting the physician in delivering the correct light dose. The absorption increase can be compensated for by either prolonging the treatment time or increasing the output power of each individual treatment fiber. The other parameters of importance, i.e. the sensitizer fluorescence at 705 nm and the local blood oxygen saturation, are monitored in order to get an estimate of the amount of photobleaching and oxygen consumption. Based on the oxygen saturation signal, a fractionized irradiation can be introduced in order to allow for a re-oxygenation of the tissue.
A novel photodynamic therapy system based on interstitial illumination using multiple fibres is under development. The aim with this system is to enable treatment of large tumour volumes and also to utilise real-time measurements to allow on-line dosimetry. Important dosimetric parameters to measure are light fluence rate, sensitizer fluorescence intensity and local blood oxygenation. A construction which allows all functions to be readily performed with a single system is presented. We believe that interstitial PDT utilising this technique may be attractive in many clinical situations.
To develop PDT beyond treatment of thin superficial tumors, to also be an efficient treatment alternative to deeply located and/or thick tumors, a system based on interstitial illumination using multiple fibers has been developed. Conditions that could benefit from such a treatment modality are for instance malignant brain tumors and tumors in the oral cavity. In interstitial PDT one needs to use multiple fibers for light delivery in order to allow treatments of tumors larger than a few millimeters in diameter. Our sytem consists of a laser light source, a beam-splitting system dividing the light into three or six output fibers and a custom-made dosimetry program. The concept is then to use these fibers not only for delivering the treatment light, but also to measure parameters of interest for the treatment outcome. The fluence rate of the light emitted by each fiber is measured at the positions of the other fiber tips. From these results the light dose at all positions could be recalculated. Changes in optical properties as well as bleaching and concentration of the photosensitizer during the treatment could be monitored and compensated for in the dosimetry. Tumors have been treated both in experimental studies and in patients with thick superficial Basal Cell Carcinomas. Almost all treated skin lesions responded with complete response.
An imaging spectrograph, designed and built by Science and Technology International (STI), and a point monitoring system, developed at the Lund Institute of Technology, have been used to measure the fluorescence and reflectance of cervical tissue <i>in vivo</i>. The instruments have been employed in a clinical trial in Vilnius, Lithuania, where 111 patients were examined. Patients were initially screened by Pap smear, examined by colposcopy and a tissue sampling procedure was performed. Detailed histopathological assessments were performed on the biopsies, and these assessments were correlated with spectra and images. The results of the spectroscopic investigations are illustrated by a thorough discussion of a case study for one of the patients, suggesting that the techniques are useful in the management of cervical malignancies.
The use of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of cervical histopathology is a growing field of research. The majority of this research is performed with point-like probes. Typically, clinicians select probe sites visually, collecting a handful of spectral samples. An exception to this methodology is the Hyperspectral Diagnostic Imaging (HSDI) instrument developed by Science and Technology International. This non-invasive device collects contiguous hyperspectral images across the entire cervical portio. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the HSDI instruments make them uniquely well suited for addressing the issues of coupled spatial and spectral variability of tissues in vivo. Analysis of HSDI data indicates that tissue spectra vary from point to point, even within histopathologically homogeneous regions. This spectral variability exhibits both random and patterned components, implying that point monitoring may be susceptible to significant sources of noise and clutter inherent in the tissue. We have analyzed HSDI images from clinical CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) patients to quantify the spatial variability of fluorescence and reflectance spectra. This analysis shows the spatial structure of images to be fractal in nature, in both intensity and spectrum. These fractal tissue textures will limit the performance of any point-monitoring technology.
A hyperspectral imaging spectrograph has been used to measure the fluorescence and reflectance of cervical tissue <i>in vivo</i>. The instrument was employed in a clinical trial in Vilnius, Lithuania, where 111 patients were examined. The patients were initially screened by Pap smear, examined by colposcopy and a tissue sampling procedure was performed. Detailed histopathological assessments were performed on the biopsies, and these assessments were correlated with spectra and images. The results of the spectroscopic investigations show that different tissue types within one biopsy region exhibit different spectral signatures. A spectral analysis of the entire image localizes dysplastic regions in both fluorescence and reflectance, suggesting that the hyperspectral imaging technique is useful in the management of cervical malignancies.
A recently developed multiple fiber system for treating malignant tumors with interstitial photodynamic therapy was used in studies on rats with colon adenocarcinoma inoculated into the muscles of the hind legs. The animals were intraperitonially administrated (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the tissue. The treatment system consists of a laser light source, a beam-splitting system dividing the light into three or six output fibers and a dosimetry program calculating the optimal fiber position within the tumor as well as the treatment time needed to obtain a given threshold value of the light dose. One aim of the study was to compare the treatment outcome with the modelled dosimetry predictions. Tumor reduction was examined three days post treatment. A volume decrease was found in 85% of the treated tumors. The mean volume reduction was 44%, with one tumor completely disappearing. Histopathological examination three days post treatment showed substantial necrotic parts which, however, to a smaller extent were present also for non-treated tumors. These results indicated that the tumors have been under treated and the light dose has to be increased. Measurements of the build-up and photo-induced bleaching of PpIX using laser-induced fluorescence were also performed during the experiments.