Gradient structures are very important for sensors, laser and wave-guide techniques, telecommunications and other
techniques which employ radiation propagation and conversion. By varying admixture concentration, the stress occurring
in the structure may increase or reduce, which is vital for charge carrier movement velocity. We discusse two kind of
gradient structures of thin TiNx layer with a total thickness of approximately 22 nm deposited on the Si(100) substrate
and multi-layer structures with a Si-Pd and Si-Mg bi-layer periods. The gradient structures were deposited using a laser
ablation of target-compound materials. A Lambda Physics excimer laser (model LPX 305i; t ~ 15 ns, λ = 193 nm) with
f = 5 Hz operating frequency was used for layer depositing. The analyses confirmed the presence of the gradient
distribution of deposited materials. The gradient structures proved highly sensitive to both thermal effects and strong
adsorption of ambient gases. The usefulness of titanium-containing structures for gas, especially hydrogen and oxygen,
sensors was confirmed. Due to the strong gas adsorption, the gradient structures used in radiation conversion or waveguide
technology should be adequately protected against ambient conditions.
Hydroxyapatite layers (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) were deposited by means of laser ablation method using an ArF excimer laser
(193 nm). The influence of substrate temperature on the structure of deposited layers was studied. The layers were
deposited on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy which temperature varied from 250 °C to 700 °C. The characteristics of the
hydroxyapatite coatings were determined by means of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained
spectra reveal that the presence and abundance of the PO4 absorption bands depend on the substrate temperature. The
topography of the deposited layers were analyzed with the use of an Atomic Force Microscope.
Effects of process parameters on pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) were studied. Process parameters like laser energy and ambient atmosphere influence both the expansion dynamics of a laser ablated plasma plume and topography of deposited layers. The plume created using 193 nm, 20 ns pulses from ArF laser was analysed
by means of space and time resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The velocity of the plasma plume at several distances from the target in different ambient conditions was determined. The deposited hydroxyapatite layers were analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry in order to determine the film topography, its structure and mechanical and physical properties. The results show that the plume expansion velocity as well as the topography of deposited films depend on the sort of ambient gas and its pressure.