The development of solid-state radiation dosimeters has been crucial in allowing human workers to thrive while using tools that output ionizing radiation. Here, we report on solid-state tissue-equivalent radiation dosimeters based on PEDOT:PSS. We show reliable measurements of the radiation dosimeters subjected to a wide range of exposure energies and footprints of both X-ray and gamma. In addition, there is a strong indication that the PEDOT:PSS-based devices also give response when introduced to neutron sources. This represents a significant step forward in the production of cheap, reusable radiation dosimeters made with materials of similar radiation cross-section to the human body.
Previous studies have demonstrated the use of crystalline organic semiconductors to detect and localize the passage of charged particles and energetic radiation. [1-6] In this context, polycrystalline bis-(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) was printed onto polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates patterned with parylene-C dielectric, PEDOT electrodes and gold pads to form fully organic flexible x-ray detectors. The electrodes were patterned using orthogonal photolithography and oxygen reactive ion etching to define a width/length (W/L) = 100 µm/10 µm. An organic voltage divider built using these materials was hot bar bonded to a printed circuit board (PCB) via a flexible conducting tape to form a complete sensor system. The devices were irradiated with a variety of localized and large area sources and the output was extracted from the node between the two resistors and then connected to an operational amplifier via a second PCB. Dark currents for each resistor were in the 100 pA - 1 nA range. The device demonstrated has the potential to be applied in microdosimetry to allow for detection using a cross-section that matches organic tissue forming a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED) .
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 Lai, S., Cosseddu, P., Basiricò, L., Ciavatti, A., Fraboni, B. and Bonfiglio, A., 2017. A Highly Sensitive, Direct X‐Ray Detector Based on a Low‐Voltage Organic Field‐Effect Transistor. Advanced Electronic Materials, 3(8), p.1600409.
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Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) is suitable for electronic noses and the detection of gaseous biomarkers of human diseases to clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, thin-film properties such as crystallinity and thickness play a major role in overall device performance. Thin-films were obtained from spin coating of 2–20 mg/mL solutions in chloroform, toluene, chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene to form a thickness from 20 to 160 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Absorbance spectrum fitted by the sum of three Gaussian curves defined the following parameters, which correlate with the film's electronic structure/morphology: (i) the abscissa at the center of the Gaussian from the highest wavelength, which responds for the P3HT band gap, and (ii) the ratio between the area under the Gaussian centered at the lowest wavelength over the one at the highest wavelength, which corresponds to the amount of amorphous and crystalline phase, respectively. Isosbestic point was determined by thermal annealing temperature variation, while keeping the thickness constant. It was observed that absorbance spectrum shape and, consequently, thin-film morphology depend not only on the concentration of the solution, but also on solvent. Finally, the isosbestic point determined at (470 ± 3) nm provides a linear relationship between absorbance and thickness with y-axis intercept approaching zero. The absorbance spectrum and isosbestic point of P3HT provides a non-destructive, faster and reliable way to estimate thin-film properties as thickness and crystallinity without recurring to AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements.