Following the goals of single-chip integrated dual comb spectrometers, we report on recent results on mid-infrared frequency combs. We demonstrate frequency comb operation with a bi-functional quantum cascade material, which allows the integration of lasers and detectors on one chip. With this device, we hold the power and efficiency record of QCL frequency combs. In the second part, we will present first evidence of frequency comb generation using mode-locked interband cascade lasers. With the demonstration of picosecond pulse generation in the mid-infrared, we open a new path towards battery driven sensitive high-resolution spectrometers miniaturized to chip-scale dimensions.
We present a model of carrier distribution and transport accounting for quantum localization effects in disordered semiconductor alloys. It is based on a recent mathematical theory of quantum localization which introduces a spatial function called localization landscape for carriers. These landscapes allow us to predict the localization of electron and hole quantum states, their energies, and the local densities of states. The various outputs of these landscapes can be directly implemented into a drift-diffusion model of carrier transport and into the calculation of absorption/emission transitions. This model captures the two major effects of quantum mechanics of disordered systems: the reduction of barrier height (tunneling) and lifting of energy ground states (quantum confinement), without having to solve the Schrödinger equation. Comparison with exact Schrödinger calculations in several one-dimensional structures demonstrates the excellent accuracy of the approximation provided by the landscape theory . This approach is then used to describe the absorption Urbach tail in InGaN alloy quantum wells of solar cells and LEDs. The broadening of the absorption edge for quantum wells emitting from violet to green (indium content ranging from 0% to 28%) corresponds to a typical Urbach energy of 20 meV and is closely reproduced by the 3D sub-bandgap absorption based on the localization landscape theory . This agreement demonstrates the applicability of the localization theory to compositional disorder effects in semiconductors.
 M. Filoche et al., Phys. Rev. B 95, 144204 (2017)
 M. Piccardo et al., Phys. Rev. B 95, 144205 (2017)
We discuss the unambiguous detection of Auger electrons by electron emission (EE) spectroscopy from a cesiated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) under electrical injection. Electron emission spectra were measured as a function of the current injected in the device. The appearance of high-energy electron peaks simultaneously with the droop in LED efficiency shows that hot carriers are being generated in the active region (InGaN quantum wells) by an Auger process. A linear correlation was measured between the high energy emitted electron current and the “droop current” - the missing component of the injected current for light emission. We conclude that the droop originates from the onset of Auger processes. We compare such a direct identification of the droop mechanism with other identifications, most of them indirect and based on the many-parameter modeling of the dependence of the external quantum efficiency on the carrier injection.