Currently, objects tracking issue in immersive Virtual Reality (VR) applications is important for various applications. It is related not only to determination of the position and orientation of the user himself but also as the tool that she/he exploits in the VR environment. Among numerous methods of objects tracking, the "Lighthouse" solution implemented in the SteamVR tracking system deserves special attention. One of the main reasons is the open concept of the SteamVR tracking system and the availability of simple analytical tools, which allows users to build their own tracker modules. For correct operation, these tools require accurate data both on the parameters of the sensors and the base stations of the system. This paper describes research on these parameters. The obtained results allow for a more accurate implementation of the simulations, which are the basis for the design process of Steam devices.
Virtual technologies find more and more applications in many areas of our lives, ranging from the entertainment industry to advanced real-time information systems. They can also be successfully used in spatial or geographical information systems, which increases the information potential of such solutions.
What virtual technologies can bring to GIS is related to, among others with the three-dimensionality of imaging and the possibility of its full perception with the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR) solutions. VR/AR solutions offer the possibility of virtualizing various types of data as well as advanced methods of interacting with them, for example with controllers, hands, sight or verbal communication.
An example of this can be image data from systems: active (Range Gated Imaging) or panoramic. New possibilities in the field of visualization of this type of data result in the increase of analytical capabilities, among others in the field of terrafotogrammetry.
The possibility of using virtual technologies in GIS 3D solutions applies to both stationary applications (management centers) and mobile applications (field patrols). Each of these solutions brings a number of synergistic effects (including the effect of cognitive enhancement). The presented content is more adapted to the human perceptive capabilities.
The study contains selected issues and examples of solutions currently being carried out at the Institute of Optoelectronics of the Military University of Technology (IOE-MUT) by the authors.
SteamVR technology has become very popular in virtual reality applications. The most common example of its use are the HTC VIVE controllers. Applications, however, are not limited to controllers held directly in the hands. SteamVR trackers can also be placed on real objects that have their representation in the virtual world. Due to the specificity of use, it is necessary to choose the optimal part of the object to which the tracker will be attached. However, it is not always possible to obtain satisfactory results with this method. An alternative solution is a dedicated tracker project sometimes with an original detector constellation. Regardless of which path the trackers and VR applications designers will follow, it is indispensable to be able to verify the correct operation of the system: object and associated tracker, in laboratory conditions. The experimental measuring stand and the testing method has been developed based on the OptiTrack motion tracking system. The initial positive results of such measurement stand were obtained. The tests carried out concerned both the production models and the own design tracker construction placed on various shapes test objects.
In the real world, we can easily manipulate small objects that we hold in our hands. We can see them carefully from each side, look at the details by bringing them close to the eyes, etc. and what if the object has microscopic dimensions or on the contrary - it is very large. In this case, the matter is not so simple. However, if we have digital models of such objects, the above problems can be solved with the use of virtual technologies. An interesting example may be the use of augmented reality for this purpose and graphic tags that act as triggers for the visualization process. The tags mentioned above also play the role of positioning and orientation system of the spatial configuration: a virtual object - an observer. The process of determining spatial parameters is initiated by the results of image processing and analysis. Tests of such a solution were carried out using the optical see-through display. Initial positioning and orientation of the object relative to the observer is carried out by analyzing the video stream coming from the integrated camera. Tests of such a solution were carried out using the optical see-through display. Initial positioning and orientation of the object relative to the observer is carried out by analyzing the video stream coming from the integrated camera. The extended scope of object manipulation (change of position, orientation and scale) is obtained by means of a GUI interface integrated with the display
The paper describes the results of experimental research on the mobile verification of travellers based on fingerprints. Three-day tests were carried out at the border crossing in Terespol, Poland. The developed system automatically acquires personal and biometric data (fingerprints) from the Polish biometric passport, determines their quality and compares with the live data collected from the traveller. In addition, the system measures the time of individual stages of the process and determines total transaction time. For total number of correctly scanned travellers equal to 128, false acceptance rate equals to 0, while rejection rate is less than 1%. The average transition time of border check was 37 seconds.
The development of the final form of the THz scanner in MIMO technology (Multiple Input Multiple Output) requires the preparation of a measuring station that integrates control and measurement, vision and mechanical systems. The management of such a measurement system can be improved by using elements of virtual technologies. Spatial analyzes concerning a measurement object can be made using measurement space virtualization based on data from a ToF (Time of Flight) camera. Collision-free operation of the XY type scanner and Robot arm can be verified in virtual space. The correct operation of the measurement system can be verified using the augmented reality technology. The abovementioned elements very well fit into the idea of the so-called Industry 4.0 in which we are talking about cyber-physical systems. For the purposes of the research project being carried out, a simplified model of operation of such a system was proposed. However, the main focus was on the possibility of using virtual technologies and the benefits of using them.
Information management is an inseparable part of the command process. The result is that the person making decisions at the command post interacts with data providing devices in various ways. Tools virtualization process can introduce a number of significant modifications in the design of solutions for management and command. The general idea involves replacing physical devices user interface with their digital representation (so-called Virtual instruments). A more advanced level of the systems “digitalization” is to use the mixed reality environments.
In solutions using Augmented reality (AR) customized HMI is displayed to the operator when he approaches to each device. Identification of device is done by image recognition of photo codes. Visualization is achieved by (optical) see-through head mounted display (HMD). Control can be done for example by means of a handheld touch panel.
Using the immersive virtual environment, the command center can be digitally reconstructed. Workstation requires only VR system (HMD) and access to information network. Operator can interact with devices in such a way as it would perform in real world (for example with the virtual hands).
Because of their procedures (an analysis of central vision, eye tracking) MR systems offers another useful feature of reducing requirements for system data throughput. Due to the fact that at the moment we focus on the single device.
Experiments carried out using Moverio BT-200 and SteamVR systems and the results of experimental application testing clearly indicate the ability to create a fully functional information system with the use of mixed reality technology.
Solutions in the field of virtual reality are very strongly associated with optoelectronic technologies. This applies to both process design and operation of VR applications. Technologies such as 360 cameras and 3D scanners significantly improve the design work. What is more, HMD displays with high field of view or optoelectronic Motion Capture systems and 3D cameras guarantee an extraordinary experience in immersive VR applications. This article reviews selected technologies from the perspective of their use in a broadly defined process of creating and implementing solutions for virtual reality. There is also the ability to create, modify and adapt new approaches that show team own work (SteamVR tracker). Most of the introduced examples are effectively used by authors to create different VR applications. The use of optoelectronic technology in virtual reality is presented in terms of design and operation of the system as well as referring to specific applications. Designers and users of VR systems should take a close look on new optoelectronics solutions, as they can significantly contribute to increased work efficiency and offer completely new opportunities for virtual world reception.
Detection of concealed dangerous objects is a very demanding problem of public safety. So far, the problem of detecting
objects hidden under clothing was considered only in the case of airports but it is becoming more and more important for
public places like metro stations, and government buildings.
The development of imaging devices and exploration of new spectral bands is a chance to introduce new equipment for
assuring public safety. It has been proved that objects hidden under clothing can be detected and visualized using
terahertz (THz) cameras. However, passive THz cameras still offer too low image resolution for objects recognition. On
the other hand new infrared cameras offer sufficient parameters to detect objects covered with fabrics in some
conditions, as well as high image quality and big pixel resolutions.
The purpose of the studies is to investigate the possibilities of using various cameras operating in different spectral
ranges for detection of concealed objects. In the article, we present the measurement setup consisting of medium
wavelength infrared (MWIR), long wavelength infrared (LWIR), THz and visible cameras and the initial results of
measurements with various types of clothing and test objects.
Compressed sensing as an imaging method has become very popular among scientists and is becoming more and more
popular among hardware manufacturers. There are many hardware variants of single-pixel compressed sensing based
camera and there are many algorithms of sparse signal approximations. This fact makes it appear more and more
applications of compressive imaging.
Recently, many algorithms for signal reconstruction have been developed, however, all of them need many parameters to
be properly set before using. Setting proper parameters is crucial for preparing a real model of the single pixel camera as
well as for fast and efficient image synthesis. Because of high complexity of image recovery algorithms, image synthesis
process needs to be optimized.
Optimization of signal acquisition and processing parameters can be achieved running various camera simulations. In
the paper we present the integrated test environment for image synthesis of the single pixel camera and the test results of
simulations run with various configurations and parameters values. We used two combined adaptive methods for image
reconstruction - the Newton method and the conjugate gradient method. Test environment allows to run two kinds of
tests. The first test type is simulation of various parameters of acquired signal e.g. bit resolution. Image geometric
transformation like rotation is the second type of tests. Simulation results include quality parameters values of MSE,
PSNR and SSIM and image reconstruction time. Integrated test environment can be used during the process of hardware
selection as well as during camera tests with real signals.
Terahertz technology is one of emerging technologies that has a potential to change our life. There are a lot of attractive applications in fields like security, astronomy, biology and medicine. Until recent years, terahertz (THz) waves were an undiscovered, or most importantly, an unexploited area of electromagnetic spectrum. The reasons of this fact were difficulties in generation and detection of THz waves. Recent advances in hardware technology have started to open up the field to new applications such as THz imaging. The THz waves can penetrate through various materials. However, automated processing of THz images can be challenging. The THz frequency band is specially suited for clothes penetration because this radiation does not point any harmful ionizing effects thus it is safe for human beings. Strong technology development in this band have sparked with few interesting devices. Even if the development of THz cameras is an emerging topic, commercially available passive cameras still offer images of poor quality mainly because of its low resolution and low detectors sensitivity. Therefore, THz image processing is very challenging and urgent topic. Digital THz image processing is a really promising and cost-effective way for demanding security and defense applications. In the article we demonstrate the results of image quality enhancement and image fusion of images captured by a commercially available passive THz camera by means of various combined methods. Our research is focused on dangerous objects detection - guns, knives and bombs hidden under some popular types of clothing.
Solution presented in this article is a system using image acquisition time gating method. The time-spatial framing
method developed by authors was used to build Laser Photography System (LPS). An active vision system for open
space monitoring and terrorist threats detection is being built as an effect of recent work lead in the Institute of
Optoelectronics, MUT. The device is destined to prevent and recognize possible terrorist threats in important land and
marine areas. The aim of this article is to discuss the properties and hardware configuration of the Laser Photography
Screening cameras working in millimetre band gain more and more interest among security society mainly due to their
capability of finding items hidden under clothes. Performance of commercially available passive cameras is still limited
due to not sufficient resolution and contrast in comparison to other wavelengths (visible or infrared range). Testing of
such cameras usually requires some persons carrying guns, bombs or knives. Such persons can have different clothes or
body temperature, what makes the measurements even more ambiguous. To avoid such situations we built a moving
phantom of human body. The phantom consists of a polystyrene manikin which is covered with a number of small pipes
with water. Pipes were next coated with a silicone "skin". The veins (pipes) are filled with water heated up to 37 C
degrees to obtain the same temperature as human body. The phantom is made of non-metallic materials and is placed on
a moving wirelessly-controlled platform with four wheels. The phantom can be dressed with a set of ordinary clothes and
can be equipped with some dangerous (guns, bombs) and non-dangerous items. For tests we used a passive commercially
available camera TS4 from ThruVision Systems Ltd. operating at 250 GHz. We compared the images taken from
phantom and a man and we obtained good similarity both for naked as well as dressed man/phantom case. We also tested
the phantom with different sets of clothes and hidden items and we got good conformity with persons.
Recently, there has been a significant interest in employing Terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for
standoff detection. The main advantage of terahertz systems is the possibility for remote detect and identification of
chemical compounds. Practical security system in reflection mode is desired. Unfortunately, reflection spectra for many
compounds are very similar. Therefore, the simple correlation method is not sufficient to distinguish substances. In this
paper we present the concept of using combined techniques of Short Time Fourier Transform (SFFT) and image
processing with pattern recognition application in the area of automatic identification of explosives in THz range.
The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity.
The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system
ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article
show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.
Detection and recognition of covered explosive materials in the THz range can be devided into two areas - passive and
active systems. Passive systems in the submilimeter (100÷300 GHz) as well as the terahertz (0.3÷3 THz) range base on
thermal emissivity of exemined bodies. Such devices are designed to control persons and baggage in airports mainly at
the temperature about 300K. Thermal emissivity of real bodies can be obtained from the Planck's formula for perfect
black bodies and an emissvity coefficient. The emissivity coefficient of the real bodies can be determined from
laboratory measurements of spectral transmission and reflection for the specific materials. However, values of the
thermal emissivity detected in real cases depend strongly on surface of the material, direction of detection in relation to
normal to the emitting surface, atmosphere and covering materials. These factors introduce attenuation of the emissivity
what can cause camouflage of the characteristic features of individual materials and makes them difficult to identify. In
this paper we present the value of the emissivity of hexogen (RDX) based on transmission measurements in FTIR
spectrometer. The obtained emissivity is used to simulate intensity of radiation on an aperture.
The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving
objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate
potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system
ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from
system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is
working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create
network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play"
architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks.
Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the
network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a
digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to
sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.
The optoelectronic observational system with active illumination is the innovatory method of images registration. The
paper presents comparisons of passive and active images methods of registration. The realisation of framing space sector
was graphically presented. The basic data were passed about worked out laboratory set up realizing images acquisition
according to suggest active method. The results of conducted laboratory and ground tests were also presented. Received
results shows on potentially large measuring and application possibilities methods of observation with active
illumination; a) the spatial selection of observed scene elements, b) the registration and analysis high-speed processes c)
the detection and identification of objects during observations in unfavourable lighting conditions and /or visibility.
Authors of elaboration may hope, that devices basing on proposed method can become valuable measuring tool.
Ultrasounds have been used widely in medicine and devices which using acoustic waves have been giving more and more information in medicine. We propose the solution that based on phase analysis of acoustic wave packet in medicine diagnosis of soft tissue tumor. The aim of these investigations has been a construction of such a device and algorithm that would enable to find new diagnostic applications. Experimental results of 2D visualization of phase relations between acoustics fields are presented. For ~1.5MHz frequency ultrasound signal, the proposed method could measure phase relations with resolution ~0.05 rad.