We present the key scientific questions that can be addressed by GMOX, a Multi-Object Spectrograph selected for feasibility study as a 4th generation instrument for the Gemini telescopes. Using commercial digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) as slit selection mechanisms, GMOX can observe hundreds of sources at R~5000 between the U and K band simultaneously. Exploiting the narrow PSF delivered by the Gemini South GeMS MCAO module, GMOX can synthesize slits as small as 40mas reaching extremely faint magnitude limits, and thus enabling a plethora of applications and innovative science. Our main scientific driver in developing GMOX has been Resolving galaxies through cosmic time: GMOX 40mas slit (at GeMS) corresponds to 300 pc at z ~ 1:5, where the angular diameter distance reaches its maximum, and therefore to even smaller linear scales at any other redshift. This means that GMOX can take spectra of regions smaller than 300 pc in the whole observable Universe, allowing to probe the growth and evolution of galaxies with unprecedented detail. GMOXs multi-object capability and high angular resolution enable efficient studies of crowded fields, such as globular clusters, the Milky Way bulge, the Magellanic Clouds, Local Group galaxies and galaxy clusters. The wide-band simultaneous coverage and the very fast slit configuration mechanisms also make GMOX ideal for follow-up of LSST transients.
This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA’s Astrophysics Decadal 2020.
We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We
are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for
technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.
MIRI is one of four instruments to be built for the James Webb Space Telescope. It provides imaging, coronography and
integral field spectroscopy over the 5-28.5um wavelength range. MIRI is the only instrument which is cooled to 7K by a
dedicated cooler, much lower than the passively cooled 40K of the rest of JWST, and consists of both an Optical System
and a Cooler System. This paper will describe the key features of the overall instrument design and then concentrate on
the status of the MIRI Optical System development. The flight model design and manufacture is complete, and final
assembly and test of the integrated instrument is now underway. Prior to integration, all of the major subassemblies have
undergone individual environmental qualification and performance tests and end-end testing of a flight representative
model has been carried out. The paper will provide an overview of results from this testing and describe the current
status of the flight model build and the plan for performance verification and ground calibration.
The WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) has been a general-use instrument at the WIYN telescope on
Kitt Peak since 2008. WHIRC is a near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 μm) camera with a filter complement of J, H, Ks broadband
and 10 narrowband filters, utilizing a 2048 × 2048 HgCdTe array from Raytheon's VIRGO line, developed for the
VISTA project. The compact on-axis refractive optical design makes WHIRC the smallest near-IR camera with this
capability. WHIRC is installed on the WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM) port and can achieve near diffraction-limited
imaging with a FWHM of ~0.25 arcsec at Ks with active WTTM correction and routinely delivers ~0.6 arcsec FWHM
images without WTTM correction. During its first year of general use operation at WIYN, WHIRC has been used for
high definition near-infrared imaging studies of a wide range of astronomical phenomena including star formation
regions, stellar populations and interstellar medium in nearby galaxies, high-z galaxies and transient phenomena. We
discuss performance and data reduction issues such as distortion, pupil ghost, and fringe removal and the development of
new tools for the observing community such as an exposure time calculator and data reduction pipeline.
MIRI is the mid-IR instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope and provides imaging, coronography and integral
field spectroscopy over the 5-28μm wavelength range. MIRI is the only instrument which is cooled to 7K by a dedicated
cooler, much lower than the passively cooled 40K of the rest of JWST, which introduces unique challenges. The paper
will describe the key features of the overall instrument design. The flight model design of the MIRI Optical System is
completed, with hardware now in manufacture across Europe and the USA, while the MIRI Cooler System is at PDR
level development. A brief description of how the different development stages of the optical and cooling systems are
accommodated is provided, but the paper largely describes progress with the MIRI Optical System. We report the
current status of the development and provide an overview of the results from the qualification and test programme.
We present the design overview and on-telescope performance of the WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera
(WHIRC). As a dedicated near-infrared (0.8-2.5 μm) camera on the WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM), WHIRC will
provide near diffraction-limited imaging with a typical FWHM of ~0.25". WHIRC uses a 2048 x 2048 HgCdTe array
from Raytheon's VIRGO line, which is a spinoff from the VISTA project. The WHIRC filter complement includes J, H
KS, and 10 narrowband filters. WHIRC's compact design makes it the smallest near-IR camera with this capability. We
determine a gain of 3.8 electrons ADU-1 via a photon transfer analysis and a readout noise of ~27 electrons. A measured
dark current of 0.23 electrons s-1 indicates that the cryostat is extremely light tight. A plate scale of 0.098" pixel-1 results
in a field of view (FOV) of ~3' x 3', which is a compromise between the highest angular resolution achievable and the
largest FOV correctable by WTTM. Measured throughput values (~0.33 in H-band) are consistent with those predicted
for WHIRC based on an elemental analysis. WHIRC was delivered to WIYN in July 2007 and was opened for shared
risk use in Spring 2008. WHIRC will be a facility instrument at the WIYN telescope enabling high definition near-infrared
imaging studies of a wide range of astronomical phenomena including star formation regions, proto-planetary
disks, stellar populations and interstellar medium in nearby galaxies, and supernova and gamma-ray burst searches.
The MIRI is the mid-IR instrument for JWST and provides imaging, coronography and low and medium resolution spectroscopy over the 5-28μm band. In this paper we provide an overview of the key driving requirements and design status.
The WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) is being developed for use on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak. It will mount on a Nasmyth port behind the recently commissioned WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM). WTTM is expected to routinely deliver 0.25" FWHM images in the near infrared (0.8-2.5 μm), with occasional periods of 0.12" diffraction-limited performance in the K band. WHIRC will take advantage of this superb imaging capability, offering a plate scale of 0.09" per pixel and a 3'x3' field-of-view (FOV) with the planned 2K2 detector. Stringent moment loading requirements at the WTTM interface necessitate a compact, low mass design, which has been achieved using an all-refractive optical path. Tight centering tolerances on the lenses call for precision cryogenic lens assemblies. In this paper we present details of the optical and optomechanical designs, and engineering analyses completed to date.
We present the science case, design overview and sensitivity estimate for the design study for the WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC). The WIYN telescope is an active 3.5 m telescope located at an excellent seeing site on Kitt Peak and operated by University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University and National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO). As a dedicated near-infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) camera on the WIYN Tip-Tilt Module (WTTM), WHIRC will provide near diffraction limited imaging, i.e. FWHM~0.25" typically and 0.12" on exceptional nights. The optical design goal is to use a 2048x2048 HgCdTe array with a plate scale of 0.09" per pixel, resulting in a field of view (FOV), 3'x3', which is a compromise between the highest angular resolution achievable and the largest FOV correctable by WTTM. WHIRC will be used for high definition near-infrared imaging studies such as star formation, proto-planetary disks, galactic dust enshrouded B clusters, dust enshrouded stellar populations in nearby galaxies, and supernova and gamma-ray burst searches.