The paper describes the preliminary design of the MICADO calibration assembly. MICADO, the Multi-AO Imaging CAmera for Deep Observations, is targeted to be one of the first light instruments of the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and it will embrace imaging, spectroscopic and astrometric capabilities including their calibration. The astrometric requirements are particularly ambitious aiming for ~ 50 μas differential precision within and between single epochs. The MICADO Calibration Assembly (MCA) shall deliver flat-field, wavelength and astrometric calibration and it will support the instrument alignment to the Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics wavefront sensor. After a complete overview of the MCA subsystems, their functionalities, design and status, we will concentrate on the ongoing prototype testing of the most challenging components. Particular emphasis is put on the development and test of the Warm Astrometric Mask (WAM) for the calibration of the optical distortions within MICADO and MAORY, the multiconjugate AO module.
We present the preliminary optical design of METIS, the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, and study the end-to-end performance regarding wavefront errors and non-common path aberrations. We discuss the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that contain the manufacturing and alignment errors of the opto-mechanical system. We elaborate on the wavefront error budget of the instrument detailing all contributors. We investigate the mid and high spatial frequency errors of the optical surfaces, which we model using simulated surface height errors maps of one dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions.
METIS is the Mid-infrared Extremely large Telescope Imager and Spectrograph, one of the first generation instruments of ESO’s 39m ELT. All scientific observing modes of METIS require adaptive optics (AO) correction close to the diffraction limit. Demanding constraints are introduced by the foreseen coronagraphy modes, which require highest angular resolution and PSF stability. Further design drivers for METIS and its AO system are imposed by the wavelength regime: observations in the thermal infrared require an elaborate thermal, baffling and masking concept. METIS will be equipped with a Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (SCAO) system. An integral part of the instrument is the SCAO module. It will host a pyramid type wavefront sensor, operating in the near-IR and located inside the cryogenic environment of the METIS instrument. The wavefront control loop as well as secondary control tasks will be realized within the AO Control System, as part of the instrument. Its main actuators will be the adaptive quaternary mirror and the field stabilization mirror of the ELT. In this paper we report on the phase B design work for the METIS SCAO system; the opto-mechanical design of the SCAO module as well as the control loop concepts and analyses. Simulations were carried out to address a number of important aspects, such as the impact of the fragmented pupil of the ELT on wavefront reconstruction. The trade-off that led to the decision for a pyramid wavefront sensor will be explained, as well as the additional control tasks such as pupil stabilization and compensation of non-common path aberrations.
The CARMENES instrument is a pair of high-resolution (R⪆80,000) spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.71 μm, optimized for precise radial velocity measurements. It was installed and commissioned at the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto observatory in Southern Spain in 2015. The first large science program of CARMENES is a survey of ~ 300 M dwarfs, which started on Jan 1, 2016. We present an overview of all subsystems of CARMENES (front end, fiber system, visible-light spectrograph, near-infrared spectrograph, calibration units, etalons, facility control, interlock system, instrument control system, data reduction pipeline, data flow, and archive), and give an overview of the assembly, integration, verification, and commissioning phases of the project. We show initial results and discuss further plans for the scientific use of CARMENES.
PANIC is the new PAnoramic Near-Infrared camera for Calar Alto, a joint project by the MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany,
and the IAA in Granada, Spain. It can be operated at the 2.2m or 3.5m CAHA telescopes to observe a field of view of
30'x30' or 15'x15' respectively, with a sampling of 4096x4096 pixels. It is designed for the spectral bands from Z to K,
and can be equipped with additional narrow-band filters.
The instrument is close to completion and will be delivered to the observatory in Spain in fall 2014. It is currently in the
last stage of assembly, where the optical elements are being aligned, which will be followed by final laboratory tests of
the instrument. This paper contains an update of the recent progress and shows results from the optical alignment and
detector performance tests.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory, built by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 μm to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82, 000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. Both spectrographs are housed in temperature-stabilized vacuum tanks, to enable a long-term 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with Th-Ne and U-Ne emission line lamps. CARMENES has been optimized for a search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zones (HZs) of low-mass stars, which may well provide our first chance to study environments capable of supporting the development of life outside the Solar System. With its unique combination of optical and near-infrared ´echelle spectrographs, CARMENES will provide better sensitivity for the detection of low-mass planets than any comparable instrument, and a powerful tool for discriminating between genuine planet detections and false positives caused by stellar activity. The CARMENES survey will target 300 M dwarfs in the 2014 to 2018 time frame.
CARMENES is a fiber-fed high-resolution échelle spectrograph for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. The instrument is
built by a German-Spanish consortium under the lead of the Landessternwarte Heidelberg. The search for planets around
M dwarfs with a radial velocity accuracy of 1 m/s is the main focus of the planned science. Two channels, one for the
visible, another for the near-infrared, will allow observations in the complete wavelength range from 550 to 1700 nm. To
ensure the stability, the instrument is working in vacuum in a thermally controlled environment. The optical design of
both channels of the instrument and the front-end, as well as the opto-mechanical design, are described.
PANIC, the Panoramic Near Infrared Camera, is an instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory currently being integrated
in laboratory and whose first light is foreseen for end 2012 or early 2013. We present here how the PANIC Quick-Look
tool (PQL) and pipeline (PAPI) are being implemented, using existing rapid programming Python technologies and
packages, together with well-known astronomical software suites (Astromatic, IRAF) and parallel processing techniques.
We will briefly describe the structure of the PQL tool, whose main characteristics are the use of the SQLite database and
PyQt, a Python binding of the GUI toolkit Qt.
PANIC is developed at MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany and IAA, Granada, Spain. This instrument will cover a field of
view of 0.5x0.5 degrees at the 2.2m telescope in the spectral bands Z to K. All hardware has been manufactured, the
instrument is currently assembled and tested. In this contribution we describe results of some tests.
The CARMENES project, which is currently at FDR stage, is a last-generation exoplanet hunter instrument to be
installed in the Calar Alto Observatory by 2014. It is split into two different spectrographs: one works within the visual
range while the other does it in the NIR range. Both channels need to be extremely stable in terms of mechanical and
thermal behavior. Nevertheless, due to the operation temperature of the NIR spectrograph, the thermal stability
requirement (±0.07 K in 24 hours; ±0.01 K (goal)) becomes actually a major challenge. The solution here proposed
consists of a system that actively cools a shield enveloping the optical bench. Thus, the instability produced on the shield
temperature is further damped on the optical bench due to the high mass of the latter, as well as the high thermal
decoupling between both components, the main heat exchange being produced by radiation.
This system -which is being developed with the active collaboration and advice of ESO (Jean-Louis Lizon)- is composed
by a previous unit which produces a stable flow of nitrogen gas. The flow so produced goes into the in-vacuum circuitry
of the NIR spectrograph and removes the radiative heat load incoming to the radiation shield by means of a group of
properly dimensioned heat exchangers.
The present paper describes and summarizes the cooling system designed for CARMENES NIR as well as the analyses
Currently, every single instrument using NIR detectors is cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to minimize the
thermal flux emitted by a warm instrument. Cryogenization, meaning reaching very low operating temperatures, is a
must when the K band is needed for the science case. This results in more complex and more expensive instruments.
However, science cases that do not benefit from observing in the K band, like the detection of exoplanets around M
dwarfs through the radial velocity technique, can make use of non-cryogenic instruments. The CARMENES instrument
is implementing a cooling system which could allow such a solution. It is being built by a consortium of eleven Spanish
and German institutions and will conduct an exoplanet survey around M dwarfs. Its concept includes two spectrographs,
one equipped with a CCD for the range 550-950 nm, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 950-1700 nm,
covering therefore the YJH bands.
In this contribution, different possibilities are studied to reach the final cooling solution to be used in CARMENES, all of
them demonstrated to be feasible, within the requirements of the SNR requested by the science case.
PANIC, the PAnoramic Near-Infrared Camera for Calar Alto, is one of the next generation instruments for this
observatory. In order to cover a field of view of approximately 30 arcmin, PANIC uses a mosaic of four 2k x 2k
HAWAII-2RG arrays from Teledyne. This document presents the preliminary results of the basic characterization of the
mosaic. The performance of the system as a whole, as well as the in-house readout electronics and software capabilities
will also be briefly discussed.
PANIC, the Panoramic Near-Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory. A 4x4 k detector
yields a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degrees at a pixel scale of 0.45 arc sec/pixel at the 2.2m telescope. PANIC can be used
also at the 3.5m telescope with half the pixel scale. The optics consists of 9 lenses and 3 folding mirrors. Mechanical
tolerances are as small as 50 microns for some elements. PANIC will have a low thermal background due to cold
stops. Read-out is done with MPIA's own new electronics which allows read-out of 132 channels in parallel. Weight
and size limits lead to interesting design features. Here we describe the opto-mechanical design.
This paper examines the reasons for building a compiled language embedded on an instrument software. Starting from
scratch and step by step, all the compiler stages of an ANSI-C like language are analyzed, simplified and implemented.
The result is a compiler and a runner with a small footprint that can be easily transferable and embedded into an
instrument software. Both have about 75 KBytes when similar solutions have hundreds. Finally, the possibilities that
arise from embedding the runner inside an instrument software are explored.
CARMENES has been proposed as a next-generation instrument for the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope. Its objective is
finding habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs through radial velocity measurements (m/s level) in the near-infrared.
Consequently, the NIR spectrograph is highly constraint regarding thermal/mechanical requirements. Indeed, the
requirements used for the present study limit the thermal stability to ±0.01K (within year period) over a working
temperature of 243K in order to minimise radial velocity drifts. This can be achieved by implementing a solution based
on several temperature-controlled rooms (TCR), whose smallest room encloses the vacuum vessel which houses the
Nevertheless, several options have been taken into account to minimise the complexity of the thermal design: 1) Large
thermal inertia of the system, where, given a thermal instability of the environment (typically, ±0.1K), the optomechanical
system remains stable within ±0.01K in the long run; 2) Environment thermal control, where thermal
stability is ensured by controlling the temperature of the environment surrounding the vacuum vessel.
The present article also includes the comprehensive transient-state thermal analyses which have been implemented in
order to make the best choice, as well as to give important inputs for the thermal layout of the instrument.
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical
Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto
Observatory by a consortium of Spanish and German institutions. Conducting a five-year exoplanet survey
targeting ~ 300 M stars with the completed instrument is an integral part of the project. The CARMENES
instrument consists of two separate spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.7 μm at a spectral
resolution of R = 85, 000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed
in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a 1m/s radial velocity precision employing
a simultaneous ThAr calibration.
PANIC is a wide-field NIR camera, which is currently under development for the Calar Alto observatory (CAHA) in
Spain. It uses a mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectors and covers the spectral range from 0.8-2.5 μm (z to K-band). The
field-of-view is 30×30 arcmin. This instrument can be used at the 2.2m telescope (0.45arcsec/pixel, 0.5×0.5 degree
FOV) and at the 3.5m telescope (0.23arcsec/pixel, 0.25×0.25 degree FOV).
The operating temperature is about 77K, achieved by liquid Nitrogen cooling. The cryogenic optics has three flat folding
mirrors with diameters up to 282 mm and nine lenses with diameters between 130 mm and 255 mm. A compact filter
unit can carry up to 19 filters distributed over four filter wheels. Narrow band (1%) filters can be used.
The instrument has a diameter of 1.1 m and it is about 1 m long. The weight limit of 400 kg at the 2.2m telescope
requires a light-weight cryostat design. The aluminium vacuum vessel and radiation shield have wall thicknesses of only
6 mm and 3 mm respectively.
In this paper, we present the preliminary optical design of PANIC (PAnoramic Near Infrared camera for Calar Alto), a
wide-field infrared imager for the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope. The camera optical design is a folded single optical train
that images the sky onto the focal plane with a plate scale of 0.45 arcsec per 18 μm pixel. A mosaic of four Hawaii 2RG
of 2k x 2k made by Teledyne is used as detector and will give a field of view of 31.9 arcmin x 31.9 arcmin. This
cryogenic instrument has been optimized for the Y, J, H and K bands. Special care has been taken in the selection of the
standard IR materials used for the optics in order to maximize the instrument throughput and to include the z band. The
main challenges of this design are: to produce a well defined internal pupil which allows reducing the thermal
background by a cryogenic pupil stop; the correction of off-axis aberrations due to the large field available; the
correction of chromatic aberration because of the wide spectral coverage; and the capability of introduction of narrow
band filters (~1%) in the system minimizing the degradation in the filter passband without a collimated stage in the
camera. We show the optomechanical error budget and compensation strategy that allows our as built design to met the
performances from an optical point of view. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of the design showing the
performances of PANIC at the CAHA 3.5m telescope.
"BOOTES-IR" is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which has been operating in Southern Spain since
1998, to the near-infrared (nIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB)
afterglow emission in the nIR, as BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives
the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like HETE-2, INTEGRAL and
SWIFT (and GLAST in the future). Given that the afterglow emission in both, the nIR and the optical, in the
instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible
to detect this prompt emission at nIR wavelengths too. Combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1
and BOOTES-2 since 2006 can allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a ultra-high
redshift (z > 6). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the nIR magnitudes be H ~ 10-15, hence very
high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by much larger ground-based telescopes. A
significant fraction of observing time will be available for other scientific projects of interest, objects relatively
bright and variable, like Solar System objects, brown dwarfs, variable stars, planetary nebulae, compact objects
in binary systems and blazars.
An experimental comparative study of different filters used in correlation filtering technique for pattern recognition is presented. One of the main problems related to this technique are the low luminous level of the correlation signal and its width. So, the experimental study has been performed in order to obtain the best combination width - luminous level of the correlation signal. The narrowest signal is obtained using quasi-inverse filters but the diffraction efficiency is very low. These quasi-inverse filters have been obtained, in a first step, using photographic emulsions by bleaching methods, including recent post-heat treatment and S.H.S. G. technique. In a second step, the quasi-inverse filters are recorded on dichromated gelatin and then the efficiency increases and the width of the correlation signals decreases with respect to the previous cases. The study has been partly performed when the signal to be detected a) lies on a uniform background; b) is superposed to a speckle field; and c) is disturbed by the presence of additive gaussian noise.