We investigate the interaction of focused Gaussian and
radially-polarized beams with a silver nanosphere, with
emphasis on the coupling to localized surface plasmon-polaritons. We discuss the overall efficiency, including
the effect of the entrance pupil and of absorption in the nanosphere, showing that a Gaussian beam performs
better than a radially-polarized beam, when focused by an aplanatic system. We find that more than 50% of
the photons in the incident beam can be reflected using realistic focusing parameters.
We study the fluorescence enhancement of a single emitter coupled to two spherical gold nanoparticles and
discuss the differences with respect to coupling to a single one. We also show that by changing the aspect
ratio of the nanoparticles we can easily tune the plasmon-mediated enhancement from the infrared to the visible
range. We present the fabrication of our nanoantennae by two alternative methods, namely X-ray interference
lithography followed by focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography. The manufactured structures
are characterized individually by confocal microscopy.
Photonic modes in 1-D and 2-D silicon-on-insulator photonic
crystal waveguides periodic or containing line-defects, are fully
explored by means of angle- and polarization-resolved
micro-reflectance measurements. Both quasi-guided and truly guided
photonic modes are probed with a frequency-wave vector range that
is greatly expanded under attenuated total reflectance
configuration. It is shown that the presence of a supercell
repetition in the direction perpendicular to a line defect leads
to the simultaneous excitation of defect and bulk modes folded in
a reduced Brillouin zone. Consequently, the group-velocity
dispersion of the defect modes corresponding to different
polarizations of light can be fully determined. We show also that
the measured dispersion is in good agreement with full 3D
calculations based on expansion in the waveguide modes.
Practical realizations of 2D (planar) photonics crystal (PhC) are either on a membrane or etched through a conventional heterostructure. While fascinating objects can emerge from the first approach, only the latter approach lends itself to a progressive integration of more compact PhC's towards monolithic PICs based on InP. We describe in this talk the various aspects from technology to functions and devices, as emerged from the European collaboration "PCIC." The main technology tour de force is deep-etching with aspect ratio of about 10 and vertical sidewall, achieved by three techniques (CAIBE, ICP-RIE, ECR-RIE). The basic functions explored are bends, splitters/combiners, mirrors, tapers, and the devices are filters and lasers. At the end of the talk, I will emphasize some positive aspects of "broad" multimode PhC waveguides, in view of compact add-drop filtering action, notably.
Photonic crystals have seen major advances in the past few years in the optical range. The association of in-plane waveguiding and two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) in thin-slab or waveguide structures leads to good 3D confinement with easy fabrication. Such structures, much easier to fabricate than 3D PCs, open many exciting opportunities in optoelectronic devices and integrated optics. We review the basics of these structures, with emphasis on basic properties and loss performance, as well as modeling tools, which show that 2D PCs etched through waveguides supported by substrates are a viable route to high-performance PC-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs). A companion paper by Benisty et al. in these proceedings illustrates further high performance building blocks and integrated devices.