We present the opto-mechanical design of SAMOS, the SOAR Adaptive-Module Optical Spectrograph. SAMOS is a multi-object, reconfigurable-slit spectrograph designed to fully exploit the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) laser guide system of SOAR, i.e. the SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM). While it is designed to maximize sensitivity, it can also efficiently operate in regular seeing limited conditions. It will operate in the optical spectrum, covering a bandpass of 400 - 950 nm, in two exposures, utilizing four grims: two to produce low resolution spectra, i.e. R » 3000, as well as two narrow bandpass, high resolution spectra at R » 10, 000. The instrument uses a large-format Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a programmable array of miniature mirrors, as a programmable slit to steer light from the telescope focal plane into either a spectroscopic arm or an imaging arm. The DMD can be reconfigured in seconds, allowing a vast range of slit widths and lengths; each being a multiple of mirrors wide and long. In SAMOS this facilitates the collection of up to as many as 200 spectra simultaneously, allowing a multitude of slit configurations, which can be optimized for seeing and science, and, at the same time, enables parallel science imaging of non-dispersed targets through a suite of broad and narrowband filters. SAMOS is a very compact instrument, by necessity. It attaches to the SOAR Adaptive Optics Module (SAM), fitting in a location with limited space, requiring a highly folded, compact optical design. This paper discusses the opto-mechanical design of SAMOS, including the overall system design as well as detailed descriptions of the optical mounts and mechanisms.
We present the key scientific questions that can be addressed by GMOX, a Multi-Object Spectrograph selected for feasibility study as a 4th generation instrument for the Gemini telescopes. Using commercial digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) as slit selection mechanisms, GMOX can observe hundreds of sources at R~5000 between the U and K band simultaneously. Exploiting the narrow PSF delivered by the Gemini South GeMS MCAO module, GMOX can synthesize slits as small as 40mas reaching extremely faint magnitude limits, and thus enabling a plethora of applications and innovative science. Our main scientific driver in developing GMOX has been Resolving galaxies through cosmic time: GMOX 40mas slit (at GeMS) corresponds to 300 pc at z ~ 1:5, where the angular diameter distance reaches its maximum, and therefore to even smaller linear scales at any other redshift. This means that GMOX can take spectra of regions smaller than 300 pc in the whole observable Universe, allowing to probe the growth and evolution of galaxies with unprecedented detail. GMOXs multi-object capability and high angular resolution enable efficient studies of crowded fields, such as globular clusters, the Milky Way bulge, the Magellanic Clouds, Local Group galaxies and galaxy clusters. The wide-band simultaneous coverage and the very fast slit configuration mechanisms also make GMOX ideal for follow-up of LSST transients.
We present the optical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph. GMOX was selected as part of the Gemini Instrument Feasibility Study to develop capabilities and requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) for the observatory. We envision GMOX covering the entire optical/near-IR wavelength range accessible from the ground, from 3500 Å in the U band up to 2.4 μm in the K band, with nominal resolving power R≃5,000. To maximize efficiency, the bandpass is split into three spectrograph arms - blue, red, and near-infrared - with the near-infrared arm further split into three channels covering the Y+J, H, and K bands. At the heart of each arm is a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) serving as a programmable slit array. This technology will enable GMOX to simultaneously acquire hundreds of spectra of faint sources in crowded fields with unparalleled spatial resolution, optimally adapting to both seeing-limited and diffraction limited conditions provided by ALTAIR and GeMS at Gemini North and South, respectively. Fed by GeMS at f/33, GMOX can synthesize slits as small as 40 mas (corresponding to a single HST/WFC3 CCD pixel) over its entire 85”x45” field of view. With either ALTAIR or the native telescope focal ratio of f/16, both the slit and field sizes double. In this paper we discuss the conceptual optical design of GMOX including, for each arm: the pre-slit optics, DMD slit array, off-axis Schmidt collimator, VPH grating, and refractive spectrograph and slit-viewing cameras.
The 4.1-m SOAR telescope can play a unique role for LSST follow-up studies through an efficient use of its laser-guided Adaptive Optics Module (SAM) that routinely delivers images with FWHM <0.5” over a uniquely large 3’x3’ field of view. To exploit this platform we have conceived SAMOS, a MEMS-based slit spectrograph capable of acquiring in a few seconds single or multiple targets with extreme precision. SAMOS can capture R ~ 2,000 – 2, 500 spectra with a nominal 0:33" slit width in the 3,500-9,500 Å spectral range reaching in 3600 s median SNR=5 at AB=22.9 with the red grating and 23.5 with the blue grating, comparable to 8-m class telescopes working in seeing limited conditions. In this contribution we present the SAMOS opto-mechanical design, concept of operation and provide a few examples of compelling science programs that can uniquely benefit from SAMOS sensitivity, angular resolution, versatility and simplicity of use.
We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.