An interferometric fluorescent microscope and a novel theoretic image reconstruction approach were developed and used to obtain super-resolution images of live biological samples and to enable dynamic real time tracking. The tracking utilizes the information stored in the interference pattern of both the illuminating incoherent light and the emitted light. By periodically shifting the interferometer phase and a phase retrieval algorithm we obtain information that allow localization with sub-2 nm axial resolution at 5 Hz.
Rapid and accurate volumetric imaging remains a challenge, yet has the potential to enhance understanding of cell function. We developed and used a multifocal microscope (MFM) for 3D snapshot imaging to allow 3D tracking of insulin granules labeled with mCherry in MIN6 cells. MFM employs a special diffractive optical element (DOE) to simultaneously image multiple focal planes. This simultaneous acquisition of information determines the 3D location of single objects at a speed only limited by the array detector’s frame rate. We validated the accuracy of MFM imaging/tracking with fluorescence beads; the 3D positions and trajectories of single fluorescence beads can be determined accurately over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The 3D positions and trajectories of single insulin granules in a 3.2um deep volume were determined with imaging processing that combines 3D decovolution, shift correction, and finally tracking using the Imaris software package. We find that the motion of the granules is superdiffusive, but less so in 3D than 2D for cells grown on coverslip surfaces, suggesting an anisotropy in the cytoskeleton (e.g. microtubules and action).
Tiled displays systems built by combining the images from arrays of projectors can provide huge numbers of pixel elements to applications needing to visually represent lots of information. Such applications are already coming into wide usage and include large scientific visualizations, collaborative virtual environments, and rich multimedia spaces. It is, however, difficult to create the illusion of a unified seamless display for a variety of reasons including optical distortion of the individual projector images due to imperfections in the lenses and basic alignment of the projectors. In this paper we describe an efficient and optimized measurement process using inexpensive components that is tolerant of a wide range of imperfections in components and measurement setup (lighting conditions, camera optics, etc.). Our method nonetheless is capable of accurate and detailed measurement of the layout of all projector images, including the generation of a detailed model of the distortions in each projector optical system. It performs these measurements on the entire array of projectors at once. Once the detailed mapping between projector pixels and mural pixels is measured, the resulting relations can be used in any of a number of ways to improve the appearance of images projected on the display.
This paper describes the near-infrared grism spectrometer and imager (GRIM) designed for use on the Astrophysical Research Consortium telescope. The GRIM system incorporates a wide range of imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric capabilities. Attention is given to the mechanical and optical layout of GRIM, the details of the optical design, and the basic components of the remote observing system.
This paper describes the design and the performance of the Astrophysical Research Consortium prototype near-infrared camera (pNIC) designed to test focal plane arrays both on and off the telescope. Special attention is given to the detector in pNIC, the mechanical and optical designs, the electronics, and the instrument interface. Experiments performed to illustrate the most salient aspects of pNIC are described.