An accurate transmission measurement of thin foils (usually made of elemental metals and/or semiconductors), which routinely are used as attenuators in soft x-ray beamlines, end-stations and instruments, represents a long standing problem over the wide experimentation field with photon beams, see for example [1-4]. Such foils are also frequently utilized for blocking long wavelength emission, i.e., UV-Vis-IR radiation, from plasma and high order harmonic sources, whilst soft x-rays emitted from the source pass through the foil with only a slight attenuation. Despite the enormous amount of data available in the literature, e.g., Henke’s tables , measurements made on real foils often provide surprising results. In this study, a procedure based on the ablation imprints method is utilized for determination of soft x-ray filter transmission, namely the f-scan technique [6,7]. This technique combines the GMD (Gas Monitor Detector) pulse energy measurement and attenuation of the beam by foils (made of different metallic/semiconducting elements of varying thickness) with areas of ablation imprints created on a suitable target, e.g. PMMA – Poly(methyl methacrylate). The results show only a partial overlap with transmission values found in Henke’s tables. Nevertheless, a good agreement with transmission values determined by conventional radiometry techniques at synchrotron radiation beamlines has been found. Such a difference between the experimentally obtained values and transmissions calculated for a pure element is usually explained by spontaneous formation of oxidized layers on the filter surface and in the near-surface layer and their possible alteration by intense FEL radiation. The first results obtained with Al, Nb, Zr and Si filters at FLASH/FLASH2 (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg tuned to 13.5 nm) facilities will be shown and discussed in this presentation.
1. F. R. Powell, P. W. Vedder, J. F. Lindblom, S. F. Powell: Thin film filter performance for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray applications, Opt. Eng. 29, 614 (1990).
2. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood: Absolute photo absorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft x-ray region below the L2,3 edges, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16 283 (1994).
3. R. Keenan, C. L. S. Lewis, J. S. Wark, E. Wolfrum: Measurements of the XUV transmission of aluminium with a soft x-ray laser, J. Phys. B 35, L449 (2002).
4. A. Joseph, M. H. Modi, A. Singh, R. K. Gupta, G. S. Lodha: Analysis of soft x-ray/VUV transmission characteristics of Si and Al filters, AIP Conf. Ser. 1512, 498 (2013).
5. B. L. Henke, E. Gullikson, J. C. Davis: X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30000 eV, Z =1-92, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
6. J. Chalupsky et al.: Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams, Opt. Express 18, 27836 (2010).
7. J. Chalupský, T. Burian, V. Hájková, L. Juha, T. Polcar, J. Gaudin, M. Nagasono, R. Sobierajski, M. Yabashi, J. Krzywinski: Fluence scan: an unexplored property of a laser beam, Opt. Express 21, 26363 (2013).