The security of electronic communications is a topic that has gained noteworthy public interest in recent years. As a result, there is an increasing public recognition of the existence and importance of mathematically based approaches to digital security. Many of these implement digital signatures to ensure that a malicious party has not tampered with the message in transit, that a legitimate receiver can validate the identity of the signer and that messages are transferable.
The security of most digital signature schemes relies on the assumed computational difficulty of solving certain mathematical problems. However, reports in the media have shown that certain implementations of such signature schemes are vulnerable to algorithmic breakthroughs and emerging quantum processing technologies. Indeed, even without quantum processors, the possibility remains that classical algorithmic breakthroughs will render these schemes insecure.
There is ongoing research into information-theoretically secure signature schemes, where the security is guaranteed against an attacker with arbitrary computational resources. One such approach is quantum digital signatures. Quantum signature schemes can be made information-theoretically secure based on the laws of quantum mechanics while comparable classical protocols require additional resources such as anonymous broadcast and/or a trusted authority.
Previously, most early demonstrations of quantum digital signatures required dedicated single-purpose hardware and operated over restricted ranges in a laboratory environment. Here, for the first time, we present a demonstration of quantum digital signatures conducted over several kilometers of installed optical fiber. The system reported here operates at a higher signature generation rate than previous fiber systems.
We present the latest results on two kinds of photon detectors: single photon detectors (SPDs) and photon number resolving detector (PNRD). We developed high speed and low noise SPDs using superconducting nano-wire (abbreviated by SNSPD) and semiconductor (InGaAs) avalanche photodiode (APD). The SNSPD system has totally four channels all of which have the detection eciency higher than 16% at 100Hz dark count rate. The InGaAs APD system also has four channels and the best performance is represented by the after-pulse probability of 0.61%, the dark count probability of 0.71×10-6 (~1kHz), and the detection eciency of 10.9%. Both systems were applied to wavelength division multiplexing quantum key distribution (WDM-QKD) operated at 1.2GHz repetition rate in a eld environment. The PNRD is made of superconducting transition edge sensor. It was applied to the implementation of quantum receiver which could beat the homodyne limit of the bit error rate of binary coherent states. We discuss future perspective of quantum communications with those photon detection technologies, including multi-user QKD networks and low-power high capacity communications.
A free-space quantum key distribution system is being developed by the National Institute of Information and
Communications Technology (NICT) in Koganei, Japan. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for transmitting
information where the security is guaranteed by the laws of physics. In such systems, a single photon is used for the
quantum information. However, since the transmission distance in optical fibers is limited by the absorption of photons
by the fiber, the maximum demonstrated range has been limited to about 100 km. Free-space quantum cryptography
between an optical ground station and a satellite is a possible solution to extend the distance for a quantum network
beyond the limits of optical fibers. At NICT, a laser communication demonstration between the NICT optical ground
station and a low earth orbit satellite was successfully conducted in 2006. The use of free-space quantum key
distribution for such space communication links is considered an important future application. This paper presents
conceptual designs for the onboard transceivers for satellite quantum cryptography
Quantum cryptography is a new technique for transmitting quantum information. The information is securely transmitted due to the laws of physics. In such systems, the vehicle that transfers quantum information is a single photon. The problem with using photons is that the transmission distance is limited by the absorption of the photons by the optical fiber along which they pass. The maximum demonstrated range so far is approximately 100 km. Using free-space
quantum cryptography between a ground station and a satellite is a possible way of sending quantum information farther than is possible with optical fibers. This is because there is no birefringence effect in the atmosphere. However, there is a complication in that the directions of the polarization basis between the transmitter and the receiver must coincide with each other. This polarization changes because the mobile terminals for free-space transmission continuously change their attitudes. If the transmission protocol is based on polarization, it is necessary to compensate for the change in attitude between the mobile terminals. We are developing a scheme to track the polarization basis between the transceivers. The preliminary result is presented.
We study various non-Gaussian states generated by photon subtrastion from a squeezed light source. The source is a cw beam generated by optical parametric oscillator. The photon subtraction
is made by tapping a small fraction of the squeezed light source and by guiding it into two Si-APDs, which enable the subtraction of one to two photons. Trigger photon clicks specify a certain temporally
localized mode in the remaining squeezed beam. By filtering the remaining squeezed beam through an appropriate mode function, one can generate a variety of non-Gaussian states. This includes single and two photon states, the NOON state (N = 2), Schrödinger kitten states of both odd and even parities, and their arbitrarily desired superposition.
We investigate the possibility of implementing a given measurement using linear optics and continuous measurement. In particular, we revisit the so-called Dolinar receiver, a quasi-physical model attaining the minimum error discrimination of binary coherent states, to give an alternative derivation for the optimal discrimination scheme. Our approach is rather simple and can be applied to various kinds of measurements such as projection measurements in the regime of photonic-qubit signals.
The photon subtraction operation is an effective method to enhance an entanglement of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state. We show that it can be well approximated to the two-mode squeezed state with an enhanced squeezing although it is basically a mixed and non-Gaussian state. Such property can be directly observed by the current technology. We also study the continuous variable quantum dense coding with the photon subtracted two-mode squeezed state. It is shown that, in particular squeezing region, its error probability performance can be greatly improved from the original two-mode squeezed state. Since quantum dense coding is the protocol to transmit classical information, our analysis provides an alternative operational meaning of the entanglement involved in the on-off photon subtracted state, compared to the previous results, such as teleportation or the nonlocality, that could help to quantify the entanglement of mixed and non-Gaussian states.