Multiplexed readout of TES (Transition Edge Sensor) signals is one of the key technologies needed to realize large
format arrays of microcalorimeters in future X-ray missions. In the FDM (Frequency-Domain Multiplexing)
approach using MHz biasing frequencies, a wide band-width FLL (Flux Locked Loop) circuit is essential to
compensate the phase delay between the TES sensor and the room temperature circuits. An analog feedback
circuit using a lock-in amplifier technique and phase shifters with a very low noise pre-amplifier is being
developed. This circuit will be tested with an actual TES array and an 8-input SQUID in the EURECA
The first light of a ultra-lightweight and low-cost micro-pore X-ray optic utilizing MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical
Systems) technologies is reported. Our idea is to use silicon (111) planes appeared after anisotropic wet
etching of silicon wafers. As a first step to Wolter type-1 optics, a single-stage optic with a focal length of 750
mm and a diameter of 100 mm was designed for energies below 2 keV. The optic consists of 218 mirror chips
for X-ray reflection and an optic mount for packing these chips. Design parameters and required fabrication
accuracies were determined with numerical simulations. The fabricated optic satisfied these accuracies and its
imaging quality was measured at the ISAS X-ray beam line at Al K<sub>α</sub> 1.49 keV. A focused image was successfully
obtained. The measured image size of ~4 mm was consistent with the chip sizes. The estimated X-ray reflectivity
also could be explained by micro-roughness of less than 3 nm and geometrical occulting effect due to large
obstacle structures on the reflection surface.
Recent development of the extremely light-weight micro pore optics based on the semiconductor MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) technologies is reported. Anisotropic chemical wet etching of silicon (110) wafers were utilized, in order to obtain a row of smooth (111) side walls vertical to the wafer face and to use them as X-ray mirrors. To obtain high performance mirrors with smooth surfaces and a high aspect ratio, several modifications were made to our previous manufacturing process shown in Ezoe et al. (2005). After these improvements, smooth surfaces with rms roughness of the order of angstroms and also a high aspect ratio of 20 were achieved. Furthermore, a single-stage optic was designed as a first step to multi-stage optics. A mounting device and a slit device for the sample optic were fabricated fully using the MEMS technologies and evaluated.
Development of a new light-weight and low-cost micro pore optics is reported. Utilizing anisotropic chemical wet etching of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) technology, a number of smooth sidewalls are obtained at once. These sidewalls are potential X-ray mirrors. As a first step of R&D, basic characters of sidewalls such as surface roughness and X-ray reflectivity are experimentally studied. Rms-roughness of 10 ~ 20Å is confirmed in a KOH-etched wafer. Furthermore, the X-ray reflection is for the first time detected at Mg Kα 1.25 keV. Based on the obtained results, numerical simulations of four-stage MEMS X-ray optics are performed for future satellite mission.