Two new types of semiconductor image position sensitive device (PSD) are proposed. One is a separate photoelectric device type of PSD that reduces image position sensing errors caused by the influence of noise light, such as background light, which cannot be removed by conventional signal light modulating methods. The other is a semiconductor dark image PSD that can detect the position of dark target image against a bright background. These new types of PSD can be realized with configurations similar to the conventional PSD. Simulation results demonstrated that the new types of PSD are effective for accurate spot image position sensing.
Stereo matching process is needed in order to obtain 3D information from stereo pair images. Many sophisticated methods have been proposed and used for obtaining the correspondence in stereo pair. However, they are all directing to obtaining global matching in a whole scene. In the recent studies on the human visual system, volume perception with binocular viewing is reported: in which object can be perceived as if it extending to sufficiently farther depth than the depth expected from the visible parts of an object; then found that the binocularly unpaired areas on an object playing an indispensable role for the volume perception. In order to simulate the volume perception on computer vision, more precise matching process in the adjacent areas of unpaired regions on an object were required. However, because of some inherent problems, even in the ideal condition without any noise, conventional stereo matching methods can not be applied for obtaining detailed information especially in the areas adjacent to the contour of an object with curved surface. The authors investigated in details on the stereo matching in the adjacent areas of the object contour with curved surface; then found that different shrinking ratios between two stereo images were the essential factor causing the difficulty in stereo matching. In order to solve this problem, the authors devise a mask scale adjusting stereo matching method and improve the matching accuracy especially in the adjacent areas of binocularly unpaired parts. By applying the proposed method more precise 3D information of an object can be expected; then the volume perception could be simulated in computer vision.
We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.
Human visual system can perceive 3D illusory object from the visual stimuli of disparity given by some inducing objects arranged with suitable relations. In this paper, we will introduce the visual effect in two kinds of arrangement with occlusion and sustaining relationship between the illusory object and inducing objects. In the former case, we name the inducing objects which provide the stimuli as occlusion cues, and classify them in two types: contour occlusion cues and bulky occlusion cues. In the later case, those inducing objects are named sustaining cues. A 3D transparent illusory object is perceived, just like we can imagine the scenes from the actions and positions of the pantomimists, so we call this visual effect as Pantomime Effect. According to the positions of sustaining cues, we found that sustaining cues played different actions in pantomime effect perception, and classified them into three types: front sustaining cues, side sustaining cues and back sustaining cues. It is also found that this effect was closely related to occlusion cues; especially pantomime effect by front sustaining cues can be regarded as a kind of bulky occlusion in opaque object perception.
From the visual stimuli of disparity given for occluded objects only partially along the contour of an occluding object which is not physically depicted, the human visual system can perceive an entire 3-D illusory occluding object. There are several new findings concerning this illusion: an interaction between several illusory objects; an edge line perceived as an intersection of two illusory surfaces; an occlusion between illusory objects; and a transparency which is unique for binocular fusion. Two types of occlusion cues for 3-D perception are postulated and investigated. In further investigations of these illusions with motion, the author found new types of visual effects, which are named as `dynamic illusion' and could not be expected from the stational case. These newly found illusory phenomena have close relations with the visual functions of the 3-D space perception and can propose new subjects not only in the field of psychophysics and neuro-physiology but also artificial neural networks and computer vision.