This work intends to consider the retrieval algorithms of remote sensing for severe air pollutions. In these cases mixture of aerosols and clouds, namely aerosols in cloudy scenes and/or clouds in heavy aerosol episode, are often occurred. Aerosol retrieval in the hazy atmosphere has been achieved based on radiation simulation method of successive order of scattering (MSOS). JAXA has been developing the new Earth observing system GCOM−C satellite. GCOM−C will be launched in early of 2017 and board the polarization sensor SGLI. The SGLI has multi (19)-channels as MODIS and measures polarized reflected sunlight at wavelengths of 0.679 μm and 0.869 μm as POLDER. The radiance and polarization degree are taken into account here in the severe biomass burning episode over Borneo islands in Indonesia observed by PARASOL / POLDER and Aqua/MODIS. As a result the possibility of JAXA / GCOM−C / SGLI related to remote sensing for a mixture case of aerosols and clouds can be examined.
To estimate aerosol properties, the PSR-1000 polarimeter measures the radiance of direct sunlight and the radiance and
polarization of atmospheric light. PSR-1000 has been calibrated once a year by the Langley plot method at Mt. Haleakala
Observatory in Maui Island, Hawaii, and so on. To improve the derivation of aerosol optical thickness, precise correction
of molecular scattering and gaseous absorption is desired. Therefore the gaseous absorption by water vapor, O<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>2</sub>are reexamined at present.
It is of interest to mention that PSR-1000 detects atmospheric particles over an urban area recorded among our long-term
An algorithm for atmospheric correction of space based data given by AVNIR-2 sensor mounted on the land observing
satellite ALOS is described here. Our procedure is based on the multiple scattering calculations in an Earth atmospheresurface
system. The atmospheric constituents are roughly divided into gas molecules and aerosols. It is well known that
the aerosol characteristics vary with time and place. This fact indicates that an aerosol retrieval problem should be solved
before atmospheric correction of satellite data. Accordingly the atmospheric correction is treated step by step in this
work. At the first step, atmospheric correction by gas molecules alone, what one calls Rayleigh correction, is considered.
Then Rayleigh correction including the Earth surface height is dealt with. Finally atmospheric correction by both of gas
molecules and aerosols is taken into account. In this phase, the aerosol properties are retrieved from the ground-based
AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) data. The processed images after atmospheric correction according to the above
three steps are compared with one another. It is shown that our atmospheric correction presents the improved satellite
The relationship between concentration of suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) and column aerosol optical thickness
(AOT) is examined based on the simultaneous measurements at a NASA/AERONET station at Kinki University
Campus, Higashi-Osaka, Japan since March in 2004. We drew the following results:
1. A strong linear correlation exists between PM2.5 and AOT,
2. The correlation is better within each type of aerosols as anthropogenic type and dust type than overall,
3. The correlation coefficients take the highest value in such a case that PM2.5 values are measured in 30-minutes
behind after AOT data.
These facts are explained with the model simulations. Our results highlight the possibility that the PM2.5 concentration
can be estimated from the AOT, and vice versa. Moreover, combining radiometric aerosol information with surfacelevel
particulate mass data appears to be a promising approach for gaining a better understanding of air quality and the
For monitoring of urban atmospheric particles, simultaneous measurements of aerosols and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been undertaken at Kinki University Campus, Higashi-Osaka, Japan, since 2004. The relationship between PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations and aerosol properties obtained from radiometry using a multi-spectral photometer located as a NASA/AERONET station is examined in this work.
It is found a linear correlation between aerosol optical thickness and PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations for both ordinary days and days with dust events. This fact indicates that aerosol characteristics can be estimated from SPM data, and vice versa. Combining radiometric aerosol information with surface-level particulate mass measurements is useful in studying air quality and aerosol properties.
It is of interest to mention that the largest dust event recorded among our long-term observations was detected during the spring of 2006.
For a better understanding of aerosols, simultaneous measurements of aerosols and suspended particulate matter(SPM) have been undertaken at Kinki University campus in Higashi-Osaka. The relationship between aerosol properties obtained from radiometry with a multi-spectral photometer as a NASA/AERONET station and SPM concentrations such as TSP, PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and OBC with SPM-613D (Kimoto Electric) is examined. It is found that there is a linear correlation between SPM concentrations and aerosol properties, which indicates that aerosol characteristics can be estimated from SPM data, and vice versa. It is also shown that the air quality of the Higashi-Osaka site is poor due to not only anthropogenic particles produced by local emissions, such as diesel vehicles and chemical industries, but also due to dust particles coming from continental desert areas by large scale climatic conditions. As a result, long term simultaneous monitoring of aerosols and SPM provides us with three types of particles according to the season for atmospheric aerosols at an industrial city of Higashi-Osaka.
This paper focuses on detection of the cloud coverage and its thermodynamic phase using the combined data derived from POLDER and OCTS on board the satellite ADEOS. The POLDER has provided polarization information with multi-angle viewing. This directional information is closely related to the scattering behavior of cloud particles in light scattering simulations. Thermal data given by OCTS infrared channels is available to determine the cloud top temperature. Our basic idea to detect the cloud thermodynamic phase is based on the combination of polarization from POLDER and brightness temperature from OCTS. It is shown that our algorithm has improved the distinction of water/ice cloud.
PSR-1000 is a portable multispectral polarimeter which measures direct solar radiation and sky radiation at the same wavelength bands as a ADEOS/POLDER sensor. A calibration of our PSR-1000 was done based on Langley plot method involving gaseous absorption from October 27 to November 2 in 1997 at Mt. Mauna Kea in Hawaii Island. Then observations with the PSR-1000 were undertaken over the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1997, 1998 and 1999. This work describes a procedure to determine the calibration constants of PSR-1000 and an algorithm to retrieve aerosol characteristics from the polarization measurements of sky light.