In this paper we present results of preliminary research of using nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) films as reflective layer in Fabry-Pérot interferometer. NDD films were deposited on Si substrates by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) with the use of CH<sub>4</sub>, H<sub>2</sub> and N<sub>2</sub> gas mixtures. During deposition process methane flow rate varied while nitrogen flow was constant. We performed series of measurements which showed that NDD can be used as a mirror in Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The best signal visibility and repeatability of measurements were obtained for sample made with 3 sccm methane flow rate.
The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.
Nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers are the most widely studied crystallographic defect in the diamond lattice since their presence causes strong and stable fluorescence. The negative charge state of the defect (NV-) is especially desired because of its potential for quantum information processing. In this study, fluorescent suspensions of diamond particles have been produced by microbead-assisted ultrasonic disintegration of commercially obtained diamond powder containing N-V color centers. Zirconium dioxide ZrO<sub>2</sub> was chosen as an abrasive and a mixture of deionized water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent. Raman spectrum of the starting material has been obtained and the resulting liquids have been measured in terms of photoluminescence. Moreover, thin layer of the diamond particles has been deposited on a silicon substrate and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). During the course of the experiment a new method, which uses sodium chloride NaCl as an abrasive, has been proposed. The results of fluorescence measurements of the suspension prepared using this technique are highly promising.
In this paper, we describe the fiber optic low-coherence sensors using thin film. We investigated their metrological parameters. Presented sensors were made with the use of standard telecommunication single mode optical fiber (SMF- 28). Different materials were applied to obtain thick layers, such as boron doped diamond, silver and gold. The thickness of layers used in the experiments ranged from 100 nm to 300 nm. Measurements were performed with broadband source operating at central wavelength 1300 nm. The measurement signal was acquired by an optical spectrum analyzer. Measured signal was analyzed in the spectrum domain. Any change of the phase difference between interfering beams reflected from the sensor head depends on measurand occurred in the spectrum of the measurement signal. We obtain the visibility value of the measured signal equal to 0.97.
Optical biosensors have become a powerful alternative to the conventional ways of measurement owing to their great properties, such as high sensitivity, high dynamic range, cost effectiveness and small size. Choice of an optical biosensor's materials is an important factor and impacts the quality of the obtained spectra. Examined biological objects are placed on a cover layer which may react with samples in a chemical, biological and mechanical way, therefore having a negative impact on the measurement reliability. Diamond, a metastable allotrope of carbon with sp<sup>3</sup> hybridization, shows outstanding properties such as: great chemical stability, bio-compatibility, high thermal conductivity, wide bandgap and optical transparency. Additionally it possesses great mechanical durability, which makes it a long-lasting material. The protective diamond thin films were deposited on the substrate using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW PA CVD) system. The surface morphology and roughness was assessed with atomic force microscopy and profilometry. We have performed a series of measurements to assess the biocompatibility of diamond thin films with whole blood. The results show that thin diamond protective layer does not affect the red blood cells, while retaining the sensors high resolution and dynamic range of measurement. Therefore, we conclude that diamond thin films are a viable protective coating for optical biosensors, which allows to examine many biological elements. We project that it can be particularly useful not only for biological objects but also under extreme conditions like radioactive or chemically aggressive environments and high temperatures.
We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H<sub>2</sub>-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O<sub>2</sub>-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.
Fabrication process of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) microelectrode on fused silica single mode optical fiber has been investigated. The B-NCD films were deposited on the fibers using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW PA CVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 ºC. We have obtained homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with the mean grain size in the range of 100-250 nm and high sp<sup>3</sup> content in B-NCD films. The films deposited on glass reference samples exhibit high refractive index (<i>n</i>≈2.05 at λ=550 nm) and low extinction coefficient. Furthermore, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine the electrochemical window and reaction reversibility at the B-NCD fibre-based electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements in aqueous media consisting of 5mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.1M Na2SO4 demonstrated a width of the electrochemical window up to 2.5 V and relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 500 mV. Moreover, thanks to high-n B-NCD overlay, the coated fibers can be also used for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) induced in the fibers. The LPG is capable for measuring variations in refractive index of surrounding liquid by tracing shift in resonance appearing in transmitted spectrum. Possible combined CV and LPG-based measurements are discussed in this work.