An additive manufacturing concept, consisting of 3D photopolymer printing and Ag nanoparticle printing, was investigated for the construction of a microfluidic biosensor based on immobilized cytochrome P450 enzyme. An acylate-type microfluidic chamber composed of two parts, i.e. chamber-housing and chamber-lid was printed with a polyjet 3D printer. A 3-electrode sensor structure was inkjet-printed on the lid using a combination of Ag and graphene printing. The working electrode was covered with carbon nanotubes by drop-casting and immobilized with cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme. The microfluidic sensor shows a significant response to a test xenobiotic, i.e. dextromethorphan; the cyclic voltammetrical measurements show a corresponding oxidation peak at 0.4 V with around 5 μM detection limit.
Two types of MOx sensor structures, SnO2 and WO3, of different thicknesses were synthesized on top of the interdigitated Au electrodes and used for the measurements of the ethylene gas. The SEM micrographs revealed inhomogeneities of the WO3 layer and the presence of cracks on the edges of Au electrodes which correlates with the lack of reproducibility of the WO3 sensors. Both sensor structures showed a significant sensitivity to ethylene gas: the sensitivities of both MOx-types were higher at higher temperatures which was more evident in the case of SnO2 structure. The SnO2 layer had approximately 5-times higher sensitivity than the WO3 sensor of the same thickness. The saturation (T10) and desaturation (T90) times were shorter for WO3 sensors at lower temperatures while SnO2 was saturated and desaturated faster at higher temperatures. Sensors with thinner active layer possessed higher sensitivities and shorter T10 and T90 times.