Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with significant pain and disability. It is really hard to diagnose TMJ OA during early stages of the disease. Subchondral bone texture has been observed to change in the TMJ early during TMJ OA progression. We believe that raw probability-distribution matrices describing image texture encode important information that might aid diagnosing TMJ OA. In this paper we present novel statistical methods for High Dimensionality Low Sample Size Data (HDLSSD) to test the discriminatory power of probability-distribution matrices in computed from TMJ OA medical scans. Our results, and comparison with previous results obtained from the summary features obtained from them indicate that probability-distribution matrices are an important piece of information provided by texture analysis methods and should not be down sampled for analysis.
Computed tomography (CT) images can potentially provide insights into bone structure for diagnosis of disorders and diseases. However, evaluation of trabecular bone structure and whole bone shape is often qualitative or semiquantitative. This limits inter-study comparisons and the ability to detect subtle bone quality variations during early disease onset or in response to new treatments. In this work, we enable quantitative characterization of bone diseases through bone morphometry, texture analysis, and shape analysis methods. The potential of our analysis methods to identify the impact of hemophilia is validated in a mouse femur wound model. In our results, shape localizes and characterizes the formation of spurious bone, and our texture and bone morphometry analysis results provide extra information about the composition of that bone. Some of our one-dimensional (1D) textural features were able to significantly differentiate our injured femurs from our healthy femurs, even with this small sample size demonstrating the potential of the proposed analysis framework. While trabecular bone morphometrics have been a pillar in 3D microCT bone research for decades, the proposed analysis framework augments how we define and understand phenotypical presentation of bone disease. The contributed open source software is exposed to the medical image analysis community through 3D Slicer extensions to ensure both robustness and reproducibility.
To date, there is no single sign, symptom, or test that can clearly diagnose early stages of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis (TMJ OA). However, it has been observed that changes in the bone occur in early stages of this disease, involving structural changes both in the texture and morphometry of the bone marrow and the subchondral cortical plate. In this paper we present a tool to detect and highlight subtle variations in subchondral bone structure obtained from high resolution Cone Beam Computed Tomography (hr-CBCT) in order to help with detecting early TMJ OA. The proposed tool was developed in ITK and 3DSlicer and it has been disseminated as open-source software tools. We have validated both our texture analysis and morphometry analysis biomarkers for detection of TMJ OA comparing hr-CBCT to μCT. Our initial statistical results using the multidimensional features computed with our tool indicate that it is possible to classify areas of demonstrated loss of trabecular bone in both μCT and hr-CBCT. This paper describes the first steps to alleviate the current inability of radiological changes to diagnose TMJ OA before morphological changes are too advanced by quantifying subchondral bone biomarkers. This paper indicates that texture based and morphometry based biomarkers have the potential to identify OA patients at risk for further bone destruction.
SC1182: ITK in Biomedical Research and Commercial Applications
In this course we present best practices for taking advantage of ITK in your imaging research and commercial products. Via interactive examples that attendees can run on their laptops during the course, we show how ITK can speed research and commercial product development. We demonstrate how script writing and interactive GUIs can be used to access the algorithms in ITK and the multitude of ITK extensions that are freely available on the web. We also cover the opportunities and challenges with using open-source software in research and in commercial applications: from prototypes that can lead to venture capital funding to applications for first-in-human trials and ultimately for regulatory approval.