In this paper we present an exploration of the stability and repeatability of a hollow core microstructured fibre (HCMOF) Raman gas sensor. Raman gas detection using HC-MOFs is an exciting technique as it enables high sensitivity, multi-species detection using a small gas volume and within a small physical space. Several previous works have demonstrated the utility of HC-MOF fibres as Raman gas cells for the detection of a wide range of gas species such as methane and hydrogen. Here we take a first look at the Raman signal stability (in a single fibre) and signal reproducibility (from fibre-to-fibre). We show that a HC-MOF Raman system can achieve low within-day variability of 0.3 %CV and fibre-to-fibre variability of 7.6 %CV. Understanding the error within systems such as the one presented is critical in the development of HC-MOF-based gas sensors for practical applications.
The use of an optical fibre long period grating (LPG) as a soil moisture sensor is reported. Characterization of the device in both clay and sandy soils revealed a sensitivity to moisture levels in the range 10-50%, and the results were compared with the output from a Theta probe, the standard soil moisture sensor, which measures the impedance of the soil.
An array of three long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in a single optical fibre and multiplexed in the wavelength domain was used to measure simultaneously temperature, relative humidity (RH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each LPG sensor was designed to optimize its response to a desired measurand. The LPGs were fabricated with periods such that they operated at or near the phase matching turning point. The sensors were calibrated in the laboratory and the simultaneous measurement of the key indoor air quality parameters was undertaken in laboratory and office environments. It was demonstrated successfully that the data produced by the LPG sensor array under real conditions was in a good agreement with that produced by commercially available sensors. Further, the potential application of fibre optic sensors for VOCs detection at high levels has been demonstrated.
We propose an optical fiber immunosensor based on graphene oxide coated dual-peak long period grating (GO-dLPG), in which GO-IgG linking layer is used for rapid immunoassays. The binding interaction between antibody and antigen produced a detectable optical signal in terms of grating resonant wavelength shift, which was proportional to the analyte concentration. By deposition of GO overlay, the bulk RI sensitivity of dLPG was enhanced around 150%. The GO-coated dLPG was biofunctionalized by the immobilization of IgG to generate the biosensor. The IgG-bound GO-dLPG was used to detect the anti-IgG and anti-PSA, respectively, demonstrating high sensitivity and selectivity. The GO-dLPG biosensor can be further developed as a biosensing platform with advantages of label-free, real-time and low limit of detection.
A method for the preparation of a sensor consisting of an optical fibre long period grating coated with human hemoglobin is described. The utility of this sensor in detecting dissolved oxygen in phosphate buffered saline solution, by the conversion of the coated hemoglobin from deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin, is described. The sensor shows good repeatability with a %CV of less than 1% for oxygenated and deoxygenated states and no drift or hysteresis with repeated cycling.
The use of bacteriorhodopsin (Br) coatings to create photosensitive optical fibre long period gratings (LPGs) is described. The response of the coated LPGs both sustained and pulsed illumination at a wavelength of 532 nm is monitored. The results show a clear response to the illumination and full recovery of the optical properties of the coating. This technique could allow the use of LPG for typifying photosensitive compounds and to develop optically controlled chemical sensors.
In-fibre microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometers were constructed by splicing single mode fibre to polarisation maintaining photonic crystal fibre (PCF), with the air in the PCF pressurised to 5.000±0.005bar. The response to transverse load was characterised, along with the influence of rotational orientation and the repeatability of the fabrication process. It was found that the features of the channelled reflected spectrum exhibited a blue wavelength shift with increasing applied transverse load.